Charlie Mariano © 2004 by Gerd Löser Charlie Mariano Tribute


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Lothar Lewien, author of "Charlie Mariano, Tears Of Sound, Wanderer zwischen den Musikwelten" (see Sources), gave me plenty of rope using the facts of his book.
Thanks to his trustfulness I can start to publish a time line mainly based on the facts from his biography. I'll announce any sequels on the Updates page.

Note: A lot of quotes in this Time Line have been re-translated into English by myself from Lothar Lewien's biography. Hence you will notice variations of the original wording when checking the original sources.

There is a list of links to short biographies written in several languages.

I added two Indexes to the Time Line.
Index, → Song Index

Time Line Navigation
1920s       23            
1930s                 38  
1940s   41 42 43   45 46 47 48 49
1950s 50 51   53 54 55 56   58 59
1960s 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68  
1970s 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77    

Time Line

1913 Charlie Mariano's father, Giovanni Mariano, a professional cook from Fallo, Abruzzi, Italy immigrates to the USA. Birth of Charlie Mariano's oldest sister, Colina.
1919 Charlie Mariano's mother, Maria Digirronimo Mariano, finally can follow her husband after a delay caused by World War I.
1921 Birth of Charlie Mariano's second sister.
1923 November 12th: birth of Carmine Ugo Mariano in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Charlie changes his first names to Charles Hugo, and finally is called Charlie.
..... Charlie's father loves the (especially Italian) opera. The first musical impressions Charlie Mariano can remember are arias — often sung by Enrico Caruso — played on a gramophone at his home. Maybe — he guesses — those bacchanal, beautiful melodies have shaped his musical taste at an early age. He calls himself a "pronounced melodical improviser."
Charlie gets his first piano lessons at an early age by Colina who is studying the piano to become a performing classical pianist. He is reasonably interested and is at pains, but playing the piano isn't a great passion of him. After all he learns to read music which proves to be a great advantage later.
He gets familiar with the music of George Gershwin, Jerome Kern, Irving Berlin, Cole Porter, etc.
1938 The first radio shows presenting the swing orchestras of the time are on air. Charlie Mariano listens to the big bands of Benny Goodman, Duke Ellington, Count Basie etc. His first role model will be tenor saxophonist Lester Young who plays in Count Basie's band at this time. He loves Lester's melodical lines, the plain, almost "cool" lyricism of his playing, and is especially into the small group sessions. That's what he wants to do: playing the tenor saxophone, and playing this kind of "cool" music.
1941 Charlie Mariano gets his first alto saxophone as a gift from his sister Colina who chooses the smaller horn due to Charlie's small size. So it's not a tenor — the horn of his idol Lester Young — but this doesn't matter, as long as it's a saxophone.
1942 Charlie Mariano and some friends of him attending to the same high school found their first band. They meet every day to practice and to listen to the recordings of their idols. They get their first big chance to play at the final ceremony of the high school. That's been his dream day and night, but now it becomes a nightmare. Playing in front of his teachers, his parents, the girls… But their first performance is a success. The kids dance to their music.
One of the band members living in Maine finds a gig for them. They play dance music at ballrooms during the summer season.
..... After his return to Boston Charlie Mariano has to learn what it means to be a professional musician. He tries his best to get a gig, but there are far more players than jobs. His parents press him to accept a job as a bus boy. He really hates to do this. For him it's just lost time which he'd rather spent with his sax. Finally somebody makes him aware of agencies placing jobs for musicians. Charlie gets his first gigs. He takes every gig offered to him. At all places they've to play the same stuff: standards like "Stardust," "Sweet Sue," etc. At those jobs he gets his first routine as a professional.
..... Charlie Mariano meets pianist Pete Andrews (born Peter Albrecht) from Hungary at "Ort's Grill" in Boston. Pete Andrews introduces him to the cycle of fifth. There are two dance clubs at Ort's Grill: the "Izzy's" in the basement — with a black band — and the "Tropico" with a white band. That's something different than playing standards. Now he's to play changing arrangements at sight.

Drummer Al Orlandi remembers: "Charlie and I met in January or February of 1942 on our way to Ort's Grill in Boston. Both of us were just 18 at this time, and it was going to be our first regular job. We had been booked by Duke Davis. I think his son Jerry is still in the business. The Ort's was a dining and dancing club frequented by a lot of soldiers. It had a worldwide reputation during the war. It was a pretty wild place with five bands, and a lot of female singers and shows. Nonstop program from 1pm to 1am. We played on the upper floor, at El Tropico which should've been the more elegant room. Ha! Labor time was tough. Seven nights plus starting at 1pm on Saturday and Sunday. Payment was tough, too. 19 bucks per week. But all of us were happy to be able to play. We played songs like 'Body And Soul', 'Confessin', 'Sweet Georgia Brown', 'Talk Of The Town', 'I've Got Rhythm', 'Lady Be Good', 'Blue Skies', 'Sweet Lorraine', to name just a few. Charlie and I played some dance music between the shows. Pete Andrews was in charge of the band and the shows at the El Tropico which was smaller and more intimate than the Izzy's in the basement. This place was pretty large, almost a quarter of the whole block. Pete Andrews, an immigrant from Hungary, was a concertmaster playing the piano, and rarely leaving the stage. Duke Davis sent the musicians without auditions, but Pete Andrews was entitled to make changes and to request replacements. Actually he never chose any musician himself, Pete was a real gentleman who took the musicians under his wings, teaching theory for free at his home. Charlie Mariano was very ambitious from the very beginning. He used every free minute to write down standards, and to get the chance to sit in with the main band which was a black band. He was heavily influenced by black musicians even with regard to his behavior and dress style. The ladies did like Charlie. He was an attractive guy with dark, waved hair. But his main interest was music. We worked together for three months. It's been a great time. Folks like Sam Donahue, Nat Pierce, Ruby Braff, Leon Merian, George Wein, etc. dropped over, sat in or just had fun listening to the music. When I met Charlie in front of Ort's he wore a coat (I think it was a beige camel hair coat) a stylish cap, and he wore a scarf around his neck. Very impressive, that's the reason I can remember that so well after all those years. Please don't ask me what I wore at that time. I never had any great times. I played the drums in Boston and the surroundings, and in the army — up to the '50s. Then I gave up."

Quincy Jones recalls: "As a student, you are at a very embryonic and impressionable stage — everything touches you. Your mouth is open about everything you're going through. It is a great experience developing as a musician. I took 10 subjects a day, from ear training to arranging, to orchestra laboratory. Herb Pomeroy and Charlie Mariano were students then too. In order to afford tuition, I had to play at a place called Izzy Ort's, which was a real dive down in Boston's 'combat zone.' It was funky down there. I worked with Preston Sandiford, a pianist and arranger, and an alto player named Bunny Campbell. They were very good musicians and were influential in my musical development."
1 }

Charlie Mariano uses every break to go down to Izzy's to listen to the black guys. They play the same music, but they swing harder, the rhythm pulses with more drive, there is just more soul in their playing.
..... Meanwhile the USA have got involved in World War II after Pearl Harbor. Thousands of men are drafted. At the beginning it applies to men in their mid twenties or older only, so the bands lose their more experienced members…
..... Trumpeter and arranger Charlie Hooks (who had been a member of Cab Calloway's sister's big band) offers Charlie Mariano the sax chair of a black musician who's just been drafted. So he finally gets the chance to play at Izzy's with the black guys. When Charlie Hooks asks him: "You wanna come down?" he answers: "Yeah. Great, man." without hesitating a second.

At Izzy's Charlie Mariano gets a lot of space for improvisation. Charlie Hooks gives him the chance, but he also knocks the stuffing out of him when he fails or stumbles over a mistake. He immediately shouts at the young saxophonist: "Stand up, motherfucker!" – and Charlie has to stand up like a pupil.
The bottom line is that his one year engagement at Izzy's — including a summer tour with a "territory band" led by Floyd Cropley — gives him the chance to learn, and to make some important experiences.
1943 "Uncle Sam wanted me." Charlie Mariano is drafted. "Man, what a drag."
He has to serve for almost three years, and will only be dismissed in 1945, after the end of World War II.
Charlie Mariano is lucky enough to be chosen for one of the "small groups" who play at the officers clubs. He is first stationed in Florida for eight months including his basic training. After that he moves to Kansas, and finally to California.
1945 Charlie Mariano is married to a girl friend he met in Kansas. Asked why he married at such a young age Charlie answers: "Why??? You can't ask a 21 years old guy, why. Who knows ... At this time it seemed to be a damned good idea."
..... Asked for his idols by Lothar Lewien, Charlie Mariano recollects: "My ideal had been to play like the black guys at the club in Boston. Swing was the big thing at that time, hence the big band era. Everybody's dream at that time had been to play in a really good — you know, in a pretty darn good — big band. It had to be swing, but not in one of those regular dance hall bands — it had to be music played by people like Benny Goodman, Duke Ellington, and Count Basie. I'd already been into 'small groups' at that time. I loved the stuff they played; those small groups from the Basie Orchestra with Lester Young or those of Fats Waller. The small groups had been the most attractive for me then, and they still are nowadays. Well, needless to say that — as an alto saxophonist — I listened to all those great alto saxophonists of that time. I was especially keen on the stuff they played. The best at that time all had been members of big bands. Willie Smith with Jimmie Lunceford, then Tab Smith. I was immensely impressed by Johnny Hodges, who played with Duke Ellington his whole life. Johnny Hodges had been my first big influence. He's so wonderful — his sound and his sense of melodies — absolutely fantastic. But there was another great musician playing alto and trumpet: Benny Carter. He'd been one of the very greats at this time, completely different from Johnny Hodges. I listened to all of them, as often and as much as I could. I didn't have any preferences; all of them had to say something important on the alto. But in most cases you start copying someone at a young age. For me it's definitely been Johnny Hodges."
..... "He completely turned my head," says Charlie Mariano when it comes to Charlie 'Bird' Parker. Dizzy Gillespie's "Salt Peanuts" had been the first recording of Charlie Parker which Charlie Mariano can remember having listened to. "Man, it was mind blowing. Absolutely mind blowing." The new harmonics using flatted fifth, the accents on the 'weak' quarters, the seemingly odd rhythmical figures and insertions… Charlie Mariano is absolutely stunned by the fast tempo of Charlie Parker's playing. The most up-to-date stuff he'd listened to before had been Coleman Hawkins, the great rhapsodic improviser on the tenor. The concept of Bird and Diz was completely different. "I wanted to be able to play like this. Hence I chased Bird's sound, his way of phrasing. I listened to his solos on recordings for hours, wrote them down, and played it. I'd been obsessed with this music, and Charlie Parker had been my God."
..... In 1945 Charlie Mariano gets his first chance to listen to Charlie Parker live. Charlie Mariano is stationed north of Los Angeles on an US Air force base when Bird and Diz — who both live in NYC — come to Billy Berg's. It's there first performance on the west coast.
Dizzy Gillespie recalls: "We brought modern jazz to the land of enchantment, to California. There was a certain magic during the eight weeks I played there with Charlie Parker. We gave some golden moments to Hollywood ... which have never been appreciated to their full extent. Most of it — if not anything — of this magic came from the guys on the bandstand. Our small band had been put together very carefully: I'd booked Charlie Parker who without any doubt was a genius, and who was the other side of my heartbeat musically. Vibraphonist Milt Jackson was a new whizz-kid of our music ... Our bass player Ray Brown played the strongest, most fluent, and most inventive bass lines of modern jazz ... People noticed two white players in our band: Al Haig on piano and Stan Levey on drums. There was more talk about their skin color than about their musical qualities. But I hadn't booked them for being white, but being able to play our music. Both of them were excellent musicians, that was important for me."
2 }
Drummer Stan Levey recalls the upset reaction of the audience: "We'd been the first mixed band playing a Californian night club at that time. People hadn't seen that before, and they really gawked at us. At those times it's been totally uncommon, especially in California where people always were ten or fifteen years behind. But our band was really good, it was excellent." 3 }
But booking of Bird and Diz for Billy Berg's is a sensation for the musicians. "The opening night was a big event, a must for every member of the jazz community who wanted to be reckoned a jazz enthusiast. People came from San Diego, Phoenix, and Seattle to be part of it." 4 }
Ross Russell recalls the atmosphere at Billy Berg's in his Charlie Parker biography: "Bird catches some musicians in the audience whom he knows, and he notices black faces as well as white faces. A young, correctly dressed guy has climbed on a table in the background of the club to be able to not only listen but also see, and he shouts the only appropriate word to express his feelings, the good old black superlative: 'Motherfucker!' Bird reacts like a conversant preacher would react to a shouted 'Amen!' — he weaves it into his second chorus about Cherokee." 5 }
Charlie Mariano is 21 years old at that time, but one has to have in mind that Bird is only four years older, but looking as forty.
Stan Levey recalls: "At the time when our job in California was coming to an end, Charlie Parker had actually been wrecked. I mean, absolutely! At those times it had been very difficult to get good heroin in California, and they had sold some Mexican shit to him. That actually ruined him. You know, he then ended up at Camarillo."
6 }
Fortunately Charlie Mariano's admiration refers to Bird's music only. He is aware of drugs, and he his curious. But he is afraid of any needles. Even today the mere though of it makes him shover. That saves him from any experience with drugs. Actually he isn't even aware of Bird's addiction — as a lot of people at that time.
..... Like most alto saxophonists — even of later generations — Charlie Mariano will be labeled as a Charlie Parker epigone for years. In retrospect he says: "There will never be a second Bird, and there'll never be a second John Coltrane. I still listen to Bird every now and then. And man, it's still great music. He had been the innovator. It's like listening to God. That's the same with Coltrane. I listen to him again and again, too. Nowadays there are guys who play even faster than him. But folks, there's no Coltrane among them. Nobody can play what he could. But that's true for everything. When Diz and Bird appeared everyone was stunned. How can you play that fast? And then — two, three years later — everybody could do it. Somebody sets a new standard, and a couple of years later it's common knowledge. That's also due to the tight competition among musicians, especially in the USA. Everybody wants to play faster, higher, better than the other. Because there are a lot of musicians, but few jobs. So everybody tries to be the best. Because only the best get the jobs. You've to be able to do something better than others. I found the following conclusion for myself: You could try your whole life, but you'll never sound like Bird, because you aren't Bird. So why don't you try to find your own way. I think when I became aware of that I really started growing musically. When I said to myself, ok, forget about chasing Bird. Work on those things you can do best and don't bother with things others can do better due to some elemental talent. Hence I don't try to play that frantic fast because there are a lot of people on all places who can do that better than me. I do what I can do best, and that's playing melodically. And I have a good sound. I focus on that. I don't want to say that I'm better than others, but that's what's important for me. And it fulfills me and satisfies me, and that's enough."
Charlie Mariano is dismissed from the Army. One member of the band playing at the officers clubs proposes to make a new start in his home town Chicago. They get too few gigs to survive and have to give up after one month only. Another ex army musician who ended up in Albuquerque, Mexico, needs a saxophone player. So Charlie moves to Albuquerque together with his wife who is pregnant at that time. They've to play dance music again. Charlie Mariano: "I listened to the stuff we were playing and thought: my God, that's all? I chew it over and over how to get my act together." Finally he decides to go back to Boston again. But the situation has changed dramatically after the end of the war. The clubs had been frequented by soldiers mainly. Now most of them have gone. It's the end of the big band era. Only a few well known bands can survive. During his absence a clan of musicians has constituted in Boston fighting tooth and nail defending their jobs.
Up to this time Charlie Mariano has been 'learning by doing' mainly — apart from the piano lessons with his sister and his private studies with pianist Pete Andrews. Now he will attend to a music school for the first time. He enrolls at 'Schillinger House' which would later become the Berklee College. Besides the 'Conn School of Music' the 'Schillinger' is the most reputable of the four music schools in Boston. But the main reason for this decision is the fact that the US Government pays the tuition fees for ex servicemen, and in addition to that gives some support for their families. Charlie Mariano is very frustrated at Schillinger. He's to learn a special 'Schillinger theory of music' developed by the Russian mathematician Josef Schillinger, founder of the school. "Really some complicated stuff," Charlie Mariano recalls. "Is this mathematical-musical formula really an important information for me? Man, I wanted to play the saxophone. But now I know that I've learned a lot at 'Schillinger'. One could exchange information with others, explain things to one another. Of course there was much more room for that than during gigs. I also learned how to arrange, how to place voices and how to combine them harmonically. But only later — when working with Nat Pierce's band — I became aware of all the things I picked up at Schillinger. During my studies I had constantly been frustrated."
Charlie Mariano is rather sceptical with regard to music schools. He's aware of the chances offered by schools like Berklee. "But if you really want to learn and go forward, you should look for a teacher you admire and take private lessons. That avoids that someone will slow you down which often happens at music schools. Studying with your teacher gives you the chance to set your own pace."
At Schillinger Charlie Mariano meets his saxophone teacher Joe Viola who taught him how to expand his sound, and how to develop a typical, personal sound. "Thanks, Joe, thanks forever."
1946 During his time at Schillinger Charlie Mariano also took any chance for a gig or to jam. There were a lot of good musicians in Boston at that time: Jaki Byard, Quincy Jones, Sam Rivers, Gigi Gryce, Serge Chaloff, Dick Twardzik, to name just a few.
1947 Charlie Mariano plays in Ray Borden's big band which later will be the Nat Pierce Band. Trumpeter Ray Borden does some arrangements for his band, but most arrangements are written by Nat Pierce.
December: first recording session at the ACE Recording Studio, Boston. Charlie plays the alto in the saxophone section of the Ray Borden Big Band. He has his first (recorded) solo playing the ballad "What's New".
Pianist and arranger Nat Pierce puts together his first band from the core members of the Ray Borden Big Band. Nat Pierce — who studied at the New England Conservatory — is going to become a key figure in the jazz scene of Boston. He is geared to the sound of Count Basie's big band of the second half of the '30s. Later on he will be called the "white Basie." Nat's first band includes the most important of the young musicians from Boston, like bassist Frank Vaccaro, trombonist Sonny Truitt, drummer Joe MacDonald — and Charlie Mariano. The band can attract an enthusiastic, but small audience only. But the music is documented on some fine albums recorded 1948–1950 which have been reissued on LP.
..... Boston has a very vivid jazz scene. There is a black big band at the same time including Sam Rivers, Gigi Gryce, and Jaki Byard. In addition to that there are trumpeters Joe Gordon and Herb Pomeroy, saxophonists Serge Chaloff and Vardi Haroutunian, pianists Ray Santici and Dick Twardzik, and finally there are jazz critic/writer Nat Hentoff and promoter George Wein.
April: Charlie Mariano is booked by baritone saxophonist Serge Chaloff to record with the Serge Chaloff ~ Ralph Burns Septet. Charlie Mariano can be heard on two titles: "Pat" and Ralph Burns' "King Edward The Flatted Fifth" which are documented on various compilations.
..... Charlie Mariano enjoys to play with Serge Chaloff, and he will record with him again, but there are very few gigs only to play together. "There were just too few jobs at that time," Charlie Mariano recalls. "We'd loved to play as a group regularly, but that's not been possible. Each of us had to struggle to get by somehow."
..... Nat Pierce — who also writes arrangements for Count Basie — becomes another important teacher (after → Pete Andrews) for Charlie Mariano. He learns to write arrangements. His first arrangement of → Seersucker Blues is documented on record. Later on Nat Pierce will even sell some of Charlie Mariano's arrangements to Count Basie.
..... Charlie Mariano completes his degree at Schillinger. Fortunately he gets a job in Lynn which is located 18 miles north of Boston only. The club offers dance music as well as jazz. He has to play seven nights plus Sunday afternoon. They have a regular group which is important to grow, and to try different things together. He meets pianist Jaki Byard. Charlie Mariano comments: "Only because of this it's been a wonderful gig. I learned a lot simply by playing with Jaki ... Jaki's playing brought to life the whole, great history of the jazz piano, from Fats Waller via Art Tatum to Bud Powell. Although he copies none of them. His playing is all himself. He simply is aware of what's been before, what's beside of him, and he's able to merge it."
First recording as a leader for Imperial: "Charlie Mariano With His Jazz Group". He's joined by trumpeter Herb Pomeroy, pianist Jaki Byard, bassist Jack Carter, and drummer Peter Littman who all come from Boston.
The group records a second album for Imperial. Both recordings don't sell very well. Imperial is one of the smaller labels, and is not exactly characterized by carefulness. The cover shows off the word SAXAPHONE in big letters.
December: First recording for Prestige titled "The New Sounds From Boston - Charlie Mariano And His Groups". The renowned Prestige label helps to make people aware of Charlie Mariano even outside of Boston.
January: Second recording for Prestige titled "Charlie Mariano Boston All Stars".
Critic/writer Ira Gitler joins the musicians on "Barsac" ringing the bells. Lothar Lewien especially mentions Charlie Mariano's beautiful playing on Gershwin's ballad "Bess, You Is My Woman Now". Dick Twardzik sits in on piano.
Charlie Mariano recalls: "Dick was awesome, and was a terribly nice guy. A very civilized young man. He stemmed from an intellectual family, his father being an artist working with lead glass. Dick also was very interested in arts. Dick often hang around with Serge Chaloff. He not only was one of Boston's best pianists, but he also had studied with Serge's mother
[Margaret Chaloff, who taught music at the Boston Conservatory of Music]. He admired her. Serge's mother had a lot of students who became famous later on. Herbie Hancock studied with her and Billy Taylor and Toshiko [Akiyoshi]. She must have had an exceptionally well working method to teach pianists to develop a good sound on piano, and above all the importance of an exact fingering. Well — as said before — Dick studied with her, and that's what he did mostly anyway: sitting at the piano practicing. Comparing him to other pianists from Boston reveals the impact of a couple of years difference in age. Jaki and I had been eight years older than Dick. Jaki started in the swing era first influenced by Fats Waller and Art Tatum, and by leading bop pianist Bud Powell only later. When Dick started Bud Powell, Bird, and Diz had already been the normal case. Everything had developed and had been more advanced. Dick already started at that level. From this level he started developing his own things."

Like most innovators Dick Twardzik had been controversial at those times. German critics alluded to "lacking substance" and "incapable dilettantism", others called him the "enfant terrible" when Dick Twardzik had his first appearance in Europe with Chet Baker's quartet in 1955.7 }

These are Dick Twardzik's own words from that time: "I'm glad that my music reaches some people now. I really try my best to play some honest music ... And I downright feel blessed that hatred has commuted into love with me during the last four years. You've to play with love. I'm working with Chet Baker now ..." 8 }

Dick Twardzik died in Paris on October 21, 1955, after the injection of an overdose. He barely grew 24 years old. Serge Chaloff, his friend and colleague, shaken to the core, wrote in an elegy for Dick Twardzik: "He had a completely new way of approaching the piano and producing the sound of his harmonies. Dick's hunger for educating himself was insatiable. He never traveled without books about all topics of art and philosophy. He listened to symphony concerts as often as possible and as a matter of course he always practiced. I never met a guy dedicated to jazz on its highest level to this extent at this juvenile age. I'll miss him forever, and the music has lost one of its most passionate and most inspired disciples." 9 }

Being asked about drugs nowadays Charlie Mariano sadly and resigning shrugs his shoulders: "Oh man, that'd been the bebop era. Yeah ... a lot of the best passed ... I can count myself lucky not having been involved in that part of the bebop era. I've worked with junkies, oh man, that's been so sad. And damned hard."

Bassist Chubby Jackson and trombonist Bill Harris leave the Woody Herman Herd to found their own band: The Jackson~Harris Herd. The new sextet is completed by Charlie Mariano, tenorist Harry Johnson, pianist Sonny Truitt, and drummer Joe MacDonald. In February they record an album titled "The Jackson ~ Harris Herd" which is released by Norgran.

Charlie Mariano is in the studio again with another sextet: Dick Collins on trumpet, Sonny Truitt on trombone and baritone saxophone, Richard Wyands on piano, Vernon Alley on bass, and again Joe MacDonald on drums. The titles recorded are available on:
"Charlie Mariano" → Recordings, and
"The Nat Pierce ~ Dick Collins Nonet, The Charlie Mariano Sextet"
The band tours the New England states for three months. But it's over after that for Charlie Mariano. He has to look for another source of income. That's the birth of the Jazz Workshop.
Charlie Mariano recalls: "I started the whole thing. It had been my idea to bring together the good, young musicians of Boston ... well, at least those I liked. There were others too, Dixieland folks, but I didn't like that. So I called Jimmy Woode, Herb Pomeroy, Ray Santici, Vardi Haroutunian, Jaki Byard, Sam Rivers, and others. I said, listen, we should open a jazz school. But not one of that kind with classes and teachers and theory, but rather a kind of workshop offering material to younger musicians for playing, showing them chords, playing with them, or just listening to them. Nothing but music the whole day long. The guys learn while playing and performing with us, playing concerts, etc. Everything started smoothly, it was the hit among the young musicians. We didn't get any municipal support, everything was our own initiative. I wouldn't call myself the leader of that thing, but I was the one who implanted the idea into the heads of the others. Finally it became the authentic activity of a group. Everyone contributed something, even to the furniture: my mom could do without some of her chairs, hence I took them for the workshop. Others did some drawings which we pinned at the walls. Yes, it worked, it was fun, and there were some pretty darn good, young talents in our workshops."
Educator and trumpet player Herb Pomeroy on his first recollections of meeting Bill
[Chase]: "I want to place it about 1953 and the reason I'm placing it there is because Charlie Mariano and myself and a few other musicians (Ray Santisi and Serge Chaloff) started a little school the 'Jazz Workshop'. We started it in June of 1953. This was not associated with Berklee, just a little thing that we did. It went for about two years and I believe the first time I met Bill was that he came by the school. It was the kind of place where we'd give guys a private lesson for a buck, the teacher would make $.50 and the house would make $.50 and we'd have small groups play and the students come in and play. It was a very informal thing, nothing of any formal nature..." 13 }
Even the jazz workshop isn't able to solve his financial difficulty. Charlie Mariano has to look for additional jobs and temporarily works at the inventory of a big store.
In October of 1953 Charlie Mariano receives a phone call which will save his life as a musician. Stan Kenton wants him for his big band. Lee Konitz has left his band after touring Europe. Stan Kenton is surprised by the big sound of the small, rather lanky man.
Charlie Mariano recalls: "I knew Boots Mussulli from Boston. He originally came from Milford, Massachusetts. Boots played with Kenton for a long time, but at that time he lived in Milford again working as a music teacher because he had been fed up traveling with the band. He wanted to have some regular family life again. Boots was friends with Kenton's road manager, another guy from Boston. When Boots heard that Lee Konitz's chair was vacant he said: 'Hey, why don't you try for Charlie Mariano. He plays well.' Sometimes Boots joined them on one tour or the other later on. He played the baritone saxophone in the band. We had a fantastic time together on the road. Because Boots plays some excellent poker. On the way in the bus we always played cards. You can't bear up those insane journeys other than that. On the bus every morning, carted around to the next gig for hours. We entered the bus immediately after the concert often enough traveling to the next performance over night. But some of the guys had fun on the way. Especially the poker players. I'd been one of them. We had a table between the seats. We put a blanket on the table and played almost to the end of the ride — game after game. It's really been a pleasure. But man, after a while it becomes boring more and more. On the road every day, every night another town. And then the concerts ... most of them weren't even concerts. We rather played dance music. The show was composed of several acts. In one act we played jazz — we had some good stuff, arrangements by Bill Holman and Gerry Mulligan. Then we accompanied the female singer of the band, Ann Richards. Then we played dance music. Everything popular at that time, mambos and that kind of stuff. The length of every act depended on the reaction of the audience. Stan Kenton had to pay attention to that. It's damned hard to keep busy a big orchestra. But for me it become a torture over time. I loved small groups. I wanted to play. Improvisation was my thing. I didn't feel like playing in a 'sax section' for the rest of my days playing a solo now and then. Though I don't want to be unfair: Kenton almost saved my life at that time. And in the beginning it's been a challenge because I played the 'lead alto' in a big band for the first time."
Charlie Mariano about Stan Kenton: "Stan was a really nice guy, very accessible. Normally he never gave the musicians a hard time other than a lot of famous band leaders did. But he dealt severely with musicians who were on drugs. He actually gave them hell. I remember him firing a whole group of musicians after noticing that they'd done this and that. I can imagine him having a lot of fun with Art Pepper." Charlie Mariano laughs tender-heartedly when saying this, adding: "Stan was severely on the bottle himself. That was ok for him because it was legal. During the gigs he stayed away from alcohol. Then he was totally sober. Not a drop. But after the gigs, man, my God, he swallowed huge amounts ... gulp, gulp, gulp ... really fast and hasty, then he collapsed, his glassy eyes looking across. That it was. But even being drunk he never was offensive to anybody. He never harmed anybody. Just sat there boozy and totally quiet."
1954 In 1954 the Stan Kenton Orchestra tours the USA featuring some guest soloists. Charlie Mariano remembers this tour as one of the musical highlights of his then life.
He recalls: "Yes, that was in 1954. We were on tour with guest soloists. And those soloists were Charlie Parker, Dizzy Gillespie, Lee Konitz, Erroll Garner, Candido, and female singer June Christy. Man, that was great, fantastic. I also had some little solo things, but that wasn't important at that time. I was so overwhelmed by being on tour with those greats, and I just listened, soaking up the music of Charlie Parker. Sure, there also was Lee Konitz, I loved him, but at the concerts I was all ears for Bird. One has to imagine: I could perform with them night after night. Fantastic. This tour lasted two and a half months."
Dizzy Gillespie recalls: "Several times ... I toured with Stan Kenton. Stan wanted to have some extra attractions. He engaged me, Charlie Parker ... and Erroll Garner. Bird and I didn't play together, there were special arrangements for each of us. The musicians in the band held us in high esteem. Those guys gawped at us all night. It was dynamite."
10 }
..... Kenton's band is actually blessed with talented jazz musicians at that time: Mel Lewis on drums, Max Bennett on bass, Bill Perkins and Dave van Kriedt on tenors, and — besides Charlie Mariano — Lennie Niehaus on alto. Among the trumpeters there are Al Porcino, Sam Noto, and Stu Williamson. Connoisseurs regard the recordings of this band the most swinging and jazziest among Stan Kenton's albums.
1955 Charlie Mariano stays with Stan Kenton for two years. By the end of 1955 he doesn't want to be on the road any longer. Looking back Charlie Mariano says: "Actually I'm very grateful that I made this experience. Such a thing makes you a better musician. The accuracy and the discipline necessary to play the arrangements in such a band is challenging your skills. Sometimes I listen to young musicians saying they were to good for this and that. I don't believe them, and I always say: Do it, at least do it. Then you'll know if you can do it at all."
Charlie Mariano is aware of the fact that there still isn't much going on in Boston. So he decides to try it at the west coast. He likes the way of life and the warm climate. In Los Angeles he finds a nice house at the Redondo Beach, near the Hermosa Beach, home of the famous Lighthouse. The legendary west coast sessions organized by strenuous bassist Howard Rumsey took place at the Lighthouse.
Charlie Mariano's wife comes back to him after a separation in 1953 in Boston. He'd met her again when touring Kansas — the home of his wife's family — with Stan Kenton.
He makes friends after very quickly. The group of trombonist Frank Rosolino — whom he's played with in Stan Kenton's band — is his entrance. They play gigs, and also record together. Then he plays with the most renowned drummer of the scene: Shelly Manne, who also is one of the most popular men of the west coast jazz. Shelly Manne is an accomplished drummer leading his own band, runs his own club, produces recordings, and works as a studio musician. His band "Shelly Manne And His Men" plays almost each club in Los Angeles and along the west coast. Those "men" had been the best Shelly Manne ever had: Stu Williamson on trumpet, Charlie Mariano on alto, Russ Freeman on piano, and Leroy Vinnegar on bass.
1956 Charlie Mariano will record five albums for Contemporary with Shelly Manne. He contributes quite some compositions to the repertoire of Shelly Manne's group, e.g. «Blue Gnu», «The Dart Game», «Slan», and «The Gambit».
Shelly Manne about Charlie Mariano: "Charlie Mariano is one of the most underrated — perhaps THE most underrated alto men in the country. I listen to him in my band every night, and his sense of melodiousness amazes me again and again. His melodic lines are exquisite and he improvises with great consistency. … I don't know any other jazz musician with such a sense of beautiful melodic developments in his solos like Charlie Mariano."
11 }
At this point of Lothar Lewien's biography one can read a quote which seems to be characteristic for Charlie Mariano: "I don't want to be the 'leader'. I want to play, contributing my things. But I don't want to impose it on others. Everything has to develop from the group."
Pianist Russ Freeman recalls: "One afternoon when staying in San Francisco we went to a motel to jam. There always were some musicians we could play with. Alto player Jerry Dodgion was there, too. On this very afternoon Charlie and Jerry (and the rhythm section) blew the roof off the place playing a blues for twenty minutes. This is one of my most memorable musical experiences ever. And I didn't even play myself."
12 }
..... Charlie Mariano gets into contact with [Gus Wildi] the founder of the Bethlehem label. He plays as a studio musician on quite a number of recordings, e.g. on the soundtrack for the movie «The James Dean Story» featuring trumpeter Chet Baker and altoist Bud Shank. One can make a living from playing as a studio musician, but Charlie Mariano gets frustrated very soon: "I was sick and tired of that kind of studio work. I didn't actually want to get into this scene playing any things on sight. OK, those folks doing that did really well — financially. I don't want to judge on that. Everybody has to try to get by. And this kind of studio work is still better than working as a teacher at a music school."
Charlie Mariano looks back to his West-Coast-Era with mixed feelings. He could make a living and he was pretty successful. He made some musically important experiences at that time. He remembers those wonderful sessions at the Lighthouse with bassist Scott La Faro, drummer Billy Higgins, pianist Victor Feldman, and tenor saxophonist Richie Kamuca.
Charlie Mariano recollects: "That was really good. We played great together and the atmosphere at the Lighthouse and its surroundings was fantastic. The club is located directly on the shore of the Pacific Ocean. One looks at the surge and the waves sparkling in the Californian sun — a dream."
On the other hand there are also some things bothering him about the West Coast: "Living in L.A., man, that's some torture, those long distances, places are miles away from each other. It takes hours to come together. That's also constricting the scene because people are living far away from each other. I lived in Redondo Beach with Richie Kamuca, Frank Rosolino, Jimmy Giuffre, Stan Levey living in the neighborhood. But that was twenty miles from the center. Others lived in the opposite direction, but as far from the center: Russ Freeman, Shelly Manne, Leroy Vinnegar. Without a car you were flat on your back — and with a car you sat behind the steering wheel for ages to meet other players."
But that's not the only reason for feeling uncomfortable in Los Angeles. Charlie Mariano: "Folks in California tried to do something completely different — the totally cool jazz. But that wasn't my thing. I wanted to play black music, expressive music. On the East Coast folks have another rhythm." Charlie Mariano closes the West Coast chapter with the words: "I had to go back to the east. It would've been embarrassing for me to be called a West Coast musician."
1958 Charlie Mariano goes back to Boston. He's been in contact with the 'Schillinger House' now named 'Berklee School of Music' and having a worldwide reputation. He accepts a job as a teacher at Berklee.
Charlie Mariano: "Though I didn't feel like cutting short my career. As a musician you've to do what's possible for you. In L.A. you can work as a studio musician. You can do the same in New York. In addition you've the Broadway theaters. In Boston you've the music schools. That's it."
Charlie Mariano has separated from his wife who's gone back to Kansas with their children. He lives in the hostel of the Berklee School of Music. In addition to his job as a teacher he plays with Herb Pomeroy's big band twice a week. Herb Pomeroy also teaches at Berklee. Sometimes Charlie Mariano also plays with small groups at 'The Jazz Workshop'. Meanwhile his idea has become an institution in Boston though in a different way. Vardi Haroutunian who's one of the musicians at the Workshop and a smart businessman has made an agreement with the owner of a club located just across from the Workshop. The club got some music and the musicians at the Workshop got the chance to perform in public. The club was renamed as 'The Jazz Workshop' and survived quite some time as a jazz club in Boston.
Charlie Mariano: "I had no idea of what I got involved with. I started hating this regular schooling very soon. You'd to accept everybody put in your class regardless of his talent. There were twenty to thirty students in one class. I had to deal with raw beginners — it had been so boring. Then there were those tests and the correction of those tests — it became a nightmare. The school meant well — they gave me thirty hours per week to earn some money. But man, thirty hours of school are really too much. I taught harmonics, theory, I wrote chord symbols on the chalkboard, oh man. Then I rehearsed with a big band of raw beginners. That was a real drag. But the work with small groups I put together myself went really well. That's ok with Berklee anyway: they don't have a fixed curriculum. Nobody tells you to do it this way or that way. They leave you alone. Anyway, it's a real school, totally different from our workshop. There were no discussions about how to do things — we just did it." But Charlie Mariano adds: "We also had some big talents who were a great joy to play with. Some of them were better than their teachers though being less experienced. During my time at Berklee some of the students were folks like Gary Burton, Gary McFarland, Steve Marcus, Mike Nock, Mike Gibbs, Gabor Szabo and some other wonderful musicians. But some tried it for a very short time only. They came, didn't like it at all, and immediately left again, e.g. Keith Jarrett or Joe Zawinul. But in most cases the talented foreign students especially stayed longer. One of the reasons was that had the right of residence which allowed them to play in the USA."
1959 Charlie Mariano quits Berklee after two terms. [He actually must have been extremely frustrated.] He goes back to L.A. accepting a chair in the tenor section of Stan Kenton's big band.
Charlie Mariano recalls: "I had to get out of Berklee to regain my balance. I called Stan Kenton to play with him again. I wasn't afraid to move again as I did that before. So I went to L.A. telling myself, OK, let's try it again. Stan Kenton had rebuilt his band. He no longer played with two altoists and the alto chair was occupied. But he needed a tenorist, so I played tenor with Kenton. That was lovely. But I also was lucky enough to get some solo features on the alto."
Charlie Mariano isn't alone when he moves to Los Angeles. One of those foreign students at Berklee had been a young pianist from Japan: Toshiko Akiyoshi. She already had made a name of herself in Japan in the early '50s. Oscar Peterson became aware of her when touring Japan. He recommended her to Norman Granz, organizer of the 'Jazz At The Philharmonic' concerts. Norman Granz recorded Toshiko Akiyoshi in 1953 which made the US audience aware of the young pianist. She left Japan at the age of 26 to study at Berklee. When she arrived in January 1956 she saw her big idol the same night: Bud Powell played in Boston. Only three months later jazz magazines started writing about the 'Japanese Piano Sensation'.
Two and a half years later she meets Charlie Mariano. He also is enthusiastic about the new student and pianist. They fall in love with each other. When he quits Berklee and decides to move to Los Angeles she goes with him.
In the course of the year 1959 Charlie Mariano divorces his first wife. In November he is married to Toshiko Akiyoshi.
He leaves the Stan Kenton band again after less than one year. By the end of 1959 Charlie and Toshiko Mariano decide to make it to the Mecca of jazz — New York City.
"It was wonderful to be on the East Coast again and to listen to the musicians over there — fantastic. The level of energy is so much higher. I grew by this challenge and I more and more felt at home with my musical activities. Maybe those years in New York have been my best years — musically," Charlie Mariano remembers.
Having founded the collective quartet Toshiko said: "Our music and our marriage both are most important for us. Now we can give consideration to both domains and can be together all the time."
14 }
Charlie and Toshiko find a home in Leonia, New Jersey. It's only a stone's throw from Manhattan, home of all those clubs offering gigs, e.g. Birdland, Half Note, and Five Spot.
Charlie and Toshiko found a quartet causing some sensation. The bass player is Gene Cherico, a Berklee alumnus who had already played in Toshiko's trio, and who had become one of New York's most reputable bassists. On drums they had Eddie Marshall from Springfield, Massachusetts.
Charlie Mariano laughs thinking of his first encounter with Eddie Marshall. Toshiko played in Connecticut looking for a new drummer for her trio. "We were sitting at a table when a young guy came to say "Hello" — pretty easy but bumbling. He knocked over a glass of beer — directly on Toshiko's fold. That was Eddie Marshall. A great way to introduce oneself. But he was a nice guy and a wonderful musician."
They tour with the quartet and play the big clubs in New York. Charlie Mariano: "It really was a great time. We couldn't work all the time, but we were pretty busy. Folks in the clubs liked Toshiko. I can remember a lot of gigs at the Five Spot. We played in turn with John Handy. John and I have become good friends. We both play the alto. Or at Birdland, that was very, very good for both of us. The guy running the club was a real sweetheart, really nice. The Birdland was something special. A large place in the basement at the crossing of Broadway and 52nd Street. When you entered the club there was the bar to the left and the booths to the right which were elevated to offer good sight. We played there very, very often. I had played the Birdland before with Stan Kenton. Our quartet mostly played in turn with a big band, either Maynard Ferguson's or Gerry Mulligan's. We had two sets, and the main attraction normally were the big bands. Gerry had his 'Concert Jazz Band' at this time. They played some good music. But I was so happy to be able to play with a small group — with Toshiko in the quartet. We also quite often played at the Half Note. They had the stage in the center of the room which was surrounded by the bar. On the side walls they had folding chairs. We played with great success at those places."
Charlie Mariano's playing is loud and expressive at times. Toshiko told in an interview: "They don't like us at some of those supper clubs always thinking a horn would be too loud. We once played in Canada. Charlie was ill and had to stay at home. I apologized to the owner of the club for coming without Charlie. But he said that he liked it even better that way."
15 }
But those experiences are exceptions only. The friendly couple makes a big impression in the jazz world. Charlie and Toshiko were asked in an interview who actually was the leader of the group. "It's her," Charlie answered grinning. "I'm not of this tough stock leaders are made of. I just want to be one of the guys and let the band be led." Toshiko smiled and said: "You know, if I asked Charlie to tell something to the guys and to talk with them about music, he wouldn't do that. Hence I'm the broomstick, and they hate me for being so, but they love Charlie." Both bursted out laughing.
16 }
Charlie Mariano says about his own playing at that time: "That was the time when I disengaged from the Charlie Parker idiom which had been a part of me for such a long time. I was inspired and influenced by all those things happening then. It was an evolutionary time. Miles did new things, modal scales became a strong basis of the music. I'd been deeply impressed by this. I did no longer play bebop by all means. I also — stimulated by Toshiko — listened to music from Japan which excited me a lot. You know, I'm always interested in melodical stuff, wherever it comes from. I'm interested in things I like."
December: first recording of the quartet titled "Toshiko Mariano Quartet" for Candid. Excerpt from a review published by Down Beat: "Mariano, so it seems, finally has found his own image. He does no longer wear his Parker shoes. The quartet has to offer a lot in a fresh way and in an individual jazz language."
17 }
1961 Having played gigs in Canada and Mexico the Toshiko Mariano Quartet goes overseas for the first time to tour Toshiko's homeland, Japan. Toshiko recalls: "It was wonderful. We played a lot of smaller towns as well as the big cities like Tokyo. And even in the small towns at least one thousand people came to listen. Some of those people never had listened to jazz, but they came and they liked it. And everybody couldn't do enough for Charlie. He really liked the country and the people. Somebody brought him a complete Japanese garb as a gift. All my friends wanted to buy things for me. I had to repeat that it wasn't necessary. So they asked: 'Ok, but what's about some things for Charlie'? The journey was really wonderful and very successful. We want to go there again very soon."
1962 Besides the quartet Toshiko Mariano continues to play with her trio, and she also plays solo concerts. She is friends with legendary bassist and band leader Charles Mingus who is just founding a new band. Toshiko introduces Charlie to Charles Mingus who is taken by Charlie's expressive playing which perfectly fits to Mingus' concept. Mingus later on described Charlie Mariano's sound as "tears of sound," the modification of "sheets of sound" which described the sound of John Coltrane. Charlie Mariano loves to look back to his time with this great, idiosyncratic bassist: "Working with Mingus was a wonderful experience. Playing with Mingus meant literally playing for one's life. Whatever you was capable of — Mingus brought out the best in you. I had my first gig with Mingus in 1962. It was a group with three horns: Richard Williams on trumpet, Booker Ervin on tenor, and me on alto. Dannie Richmond was on drums, and Mingus played the piano." Charlie Mariano laughs out loud when remembering the scene. "On bass we had Albert Jackson, brother of vibraphonist Milt Jackson. Oh my God, Mingus gave this pitiful guy hell. It must be a nightmare to play the bass for Mingus. Nobody is able to please him. It actually happened that Mingus jumped up from his piano chair in the middle of a piece, grabbed Albert's bass, starting to work on the bass like a demoniac. This happened in front of an audience. Anyway, Mingus was a strong man, but he always was nice to me, very nice. They say that he was a man with many different moods. That's true indeed. We had an extended engagement in Philadelphia with the same band. The day before someone interviewed Mingus for the radio. Mingus heavily mocked the police, they were rowdies, having knocked him over and so on. That proved to be a big mistake. The policemen were upset and they gave us a hard time. We had to lean against a wall and were body checked. The real thing started the next evening at the club. They were waiting for us and we could only pass one after the other. Everybody had to roll up his sleeves to let them check our arms for puncture marks. Everybody could pass — apart from Dannie Richmond. He was arrested. Mingus ranted like a berserk, but that didn't help at all. He had to replace Dannie for the evening. Luckily we were in Philadelphia, a place with many good musicians. Great musicians came from Philadelphia, e.g. McCoy Tyner, John Coltrane, the Heath brothers, unbelievable. But the life of the young drummer we finally got was no bed of roses. I believe he'll remember his engagement with Mingus to this day. Mingus actually wore him down, oh man. For example Mingus kicked his bass drum almost perforating the drumhead, shouting: 'Here's the beat! Here's the beat!'"
January 20th: Recording session with Charles Mingus for Impulse. The musicians in the studio — besides Charles Mingus and Charlie Mariano — are: trumpeters Rolf Ericson and Richard Williams, trombonist Quentin Jackson, Don Butterfield on tuba, Jerome Richardson and Dick Hafer on reeds, guitarist Jay Berliner, pianist Jaki Byard, and drummer Dannie Richmond. The material recorded during this session had been released on two albums: "Mingus Mingus Mingus Mingus Mingus" and "The Black Saint And The Sinner Lady." Both albums have been reissued and are still available.
Charlie Mariano's alto sounds downright moanful reminding of Ellington's altoist Johnny Hodges.
Charlie Mariano recalls: "Mingus wanted it like that, and he was right."
Charles Mingus wrote in his liner notes: "... However, Bob Thiele felt to include the two examples given by Mingus which served to also clear up the intended idea enough for Jaki Byard to give himself up wholly to the composer's development and help prepare the listeners for the next idea intended by the composer — right on down to the moanful background where Charles Mariano knew tears of sound were what was the intended thought in the background and what also was meant to come out of his alto sax solo. No words or example were needed to convey this idea to Charles Mariano. Only his love of living and knowing life and his understanding of the composer's desire to have one clear idea at least musically recorded here for the record. ... I wrote the music for dancing and listening. It is true music with much and many of my meanings. It is my living epitaph from birth til the day I first heard of Bird and Diz. Now it is me again."
..... Toshiko and Charlie Mariano move to Tokyo. They tour Japan with their quartet. Drummer Eddie Marshall — who has been recruited — has been replaced by Albert "Tootie" Heath. The quartet disbands after the tour. Toshiko and Charlie continue working together, but both of them also have their own projects. Charlie writes arrangements for a Tokyo big band which he also coaches. Toshiko writes music for an all women show.
In July Bob Thiele books Charlie Mariano for a live recording at the Newport Festival. The band is led by pianist McCoy Tyner, and the other musicians are trumpeter Clark Terry, bassist Bob Cranshaw, and drummer Mickey Roker. The album titled "McCoy Tyner: Live At Newport" is released by Impulse.
Charlie Mariano recalls: "Getting the chance to play with McCoy was fantastic. I had been pretty familiar with his music, but I hardly knew him in person. The performance at the festival had been one of those magic moments which happen very rarely. We had an almost telepathic understanding. It had been an extremely intensive feeling. McCoy can make that happen."
By the end of July Charlie Mariano gets the chance to present himself on an album titled "A Jazz Portrait Of Charlie Mariano." He is featured with a big band, with a string section, and with a quintet, all arranged by Don Sebesky. Among the musicians on this session are guitarist Jim Hall, his old fellow Jaki Byard on piano, Marvin Stamm, trumpeter and fellow musician from his time with Kenton, and the drummers Mel Lewis, Ed Shaughnessy, and Albert "Tootie" Heath.
Monday, August 19, 1963: birth of Toshiko's and Charlie's daughter Monday.
[btw: Charlie Mariano's birthday — November 12, 1923 — was on a Monday, too.]
Charlie becomes a well respected musician in Japan. His interest in the Japanese culture and his great respect for the culture and people of Japan gained him a great part of the respect he got from the Japanese people.
In 1964 Charlie Mariano writes an article about his life and work in Japan for the US magazine Jazz: "I believe that people who are not Americans are able to play creative jazz music. What's specific for Americans — black Americans in particular — is qualified by their environment, and has nothing to do with race at all. Theoretically jazz can be played in Japan or any other part of the world. But nowadays — in my opinion — it's still kind of a copy outside the US. Fortunately people are more individuals then members of a group or of clans, and they're equipped with brains giving them a boundless band width of skills. I wish that Japanese musicians wouldn't be awestruck by Americans. But they are, and they no longer feel how much beauty is inherited in Japanese music. It's one thing to be influenced — everybody is influenced by other people and experiences. But you must not keep at a point. It may very well be that — in the beginning — you've to imitate someone. But that's not all. You only find the truth when you forget the Gods and start to express yourself."
1964 First European tour of Toshiko and Charlie Mariano organized by George Wein. Charlie Mariano and George Wein first met in Boston. They became friends and later met frequently in New York having dinner and exchanging views. Charlie Mariano has a two weeks engagement at the Blue Note in Paris, France, and then plays in Copenhagen, Denmark, and in Stockholm, Sweden. In Paris he meets Bud Powell, and the young musicians on the scene namely Jean-Luc Ponty and Daniel Humair. In Copenhagen he plays with Catalan pianist Tete Montoliu and Danish drummer Alex Riel. He is deeply impressed by then 18 years old bass player Niels-Henning Ørsted-Pedersen. "Absolutely fantastic, unbelievable." Charlie Mariano has a lot of good memories of his first journey through Europe, and of the musicians he met. In Paris he buys a new alto saxophone — a Selmer. He plays this saxophone to this day. "I got a new one, but the old one from Paris is the better one."
..... Back in Japan it's still hard to make a living by making music. Quincy Jones comes to Japan for a TV feature and asks Charlie Mariano to do the arrangements. He takes the chance, and he writes some new arrangements for the Four Freshmen.
"Tokyo is completely different to New York in many ways. There are hundreds of good jazz musicians in the American metropolis eking out a living. And they rather do it than giving up jazz. Not so here. They're just not keen on fighting. They go to all places flogging a dead horse playing any kind of music to make some money. Due to the different financial condition salaries are low, and they have to play all sorts of gigs to survive. And in addition to that there are very few chances to play in jazz clubs. Toshiko and I are running a workshop band, and we think that musicians get a chance for experimenting and for exchanging new ideas. But the sessions are laboring along because somebody is missing or there's this apathy all the time. One guy said: 'Well, everybody has to make money'. I don't deny the importance of bringing home the bacon. But if money was more important than being satisfied musically, I wouldn't pluck up enough courage calling myself a jazz musician. If I wanted to make money I could imagine something less frustrating and dangerous than the life of a musician ... But Toshiko and I believe that — if we try hard enough — we can build up something. There's a lot of potential. That becomes evident by the success of jazz musicians like Akira Miyazama,
[Hidehiko] Sleepy Matsumoto, and Sadao Watanabe. They all are excellent jazz musicians who could stand their ground everywhere."
..... During the '60s Charlie Mariano works on several "Stan Kenton Summer Camps" in the USA. Those Summer Camps are an institution at those times, and very popular among young musicians. Courses last one week mostly. Stan Kenton leads the whole thing, and most teachers are members of his band. But there are also other teachers, namely bassist Ron Carter, and trumpeter Donald Byrd. Charlie Mariano rehearses with the saxophone section, gives individual lessons, and leads a big band of participants.
"Actually all teachers did everything. Whatever the students wanted to know — we demonstrated anything. A couple of years ago I played with drummer Peter Erskine. He asked me if I could remember him. He'd been a student on one of Stan Kenton's Summer Camps. He'd been seven (!) years old at that time. Of course I could remember that. You don't forget a seven years old drummer. And he already played well at that time. Saxophonist David Sanborn was another participant. I had to think of those guys at the Summer Camps when working with the Hessian Youth Orchestra recently for three days. Absolutely amazing, you don't believe how good they are. And nobody is older than 24 years because at age 25 they have to quit. Fantastic guys."
1965 Toshiko and Charlie Mariano move back to New York. Charlie Mariano hasn't been forgotten during those two years in Japan. He even has a promising start. Impulse producer Bob Thiele books him for a recording session with drummer Elvin Jones at Rudy van Gelder's studio in Hackensack, New Jersey. Led by Elvin Jones — long-time drummer of John Coltrane — he plays with pianists Hank Jones and Roland Hanna, and bassist Richard Davis. The album is titled "Dear John C."
Inspired by John Coltrane Charlie Mariano starts to play the soprano saxophone besides the alto. As well as on the alto he develops a very personal voice of his own on the soprano. He is considered as one of the few soprano players who play a self-contained soprano saxophone which can't be assigned to a specific heritage.
..... Paragraph is going to be revised.
..... Charlie Mariano starts working at the Berklee School of Music at the beginning of the 1965/66 semester.
..... "Every morning to school. totally different types of students — from talented to dead losses. In the afternoon at home — already tired — correcting tests ... thirty hours per week ... Man, there's no time left to think of music. The type of music I had in mind. There also were, as before [during Charlie Mariano's time at Schillinger] ,great musicians among the students. Chris Hinze is one example. But the worst thing was that I couldn't perform enough. Now and then silly jobs for shows in night clubs, that kind of things. But sometimes I could hop off the school and Boston to recharge."
1966 Under those circumstances every jazz gig becomes something special for Charlie Mariano. In 1966 he is invited to play at the Ronnie Scott's Club in Soho for four weeks. He plays as a soloist in the house band led by renowned English pianist Stan Tracey.
Charlie Mariano also remembers a gig at a club in Boston. He played with guitarist Ralph Towner, bassist George Mraz, and percussionist Airto Moreira.
And he took an unpaid holiday three times to tour Japan with Astrud Gilberto. "A really nice girl, very friendly," Charlie Mariano remembers.
..... At this time the government of Malaysia sends people to schools and universities of western countries. One of those people, a guitarist, comes to Berklee. His task is to build a big band in Malaysia. Charlie Mariano remembers that he played with this guy some Malaysian music. The Malaysian people need an instructor who works with the band and conducts the rehearsals. First they hire Charlie Mariano's old friend Herb Pomeroy who stays in Kuala Lumpur for two months.
1967 After Herb Pomeroy's return they ask Charlie Mariano to continue the job. His family in Boston takes care of his children. So he can take the chance to make some new experiences, and moves to Kuala Lumpur to coach the new radio big band. He's paid by a fund of the US Government. He meets a band with members from different countries. There are Malaysian people, Chinese, one guy from the Netherlands, and a lot of people from the Philippines who had already developed a western music tradition before World War II playing all over South Asia. Charlie Mariano's main task is writing arrangements which is a great fun for him to do. He enjoys his life in Kuala Lumpur.
"That was a good time for me. Really something completely different. I knew a bit about Asia, I had lived in Japan. But Malaysia was very different again. Some kind of choppy Asia. I've made some fantastic experiences because it's a multicultural community. Circa 45% Malaysian people, 35% Chinese, and circa twelve per cent Indians, especially from South India. I think those were the biggest groups. I met them all keeping my eyes open. And man, the food was good. I tasted any kind of food. Malaysian, Chinese, Indian, fantastic. A fantastic time. I never worried. Let alone about food. Far from it! I wanted to taste it. I never worried about boiled water or things like that. I did the same things all the people around me did. It's always been digestible. Of course I heard all those stories, fearsome stories about hepatitis etc. But I always was ok."
First Charlie Mariano lives in an international hotel in Kuala Lumpur. But he wanted to be closer to the people. So he rented a normal flat.
"I had a lady who did the cooking and cleaning. I payed her good. Hence it was cheap, and in Asia everybody has a service. So I hadn't to feel uncomfortable. She had an easy job, and could go home early. I took the bus to the radio station, coached the band, and had a nice day. People were terribly nice to me. Once they sent me to Borneo which is the Malaysian part of the island. They just wanted to do me a favor because I was interested in their music. They brought me to all the places where I could listen to some live music, and they also gave me tapes with some really good music. I had a guide who brought me to the very center of the island in a Jeep. We went through rice fields, through rivers, it was unbelievable. On one of these tours we met a man who invited us to his home. He told us there was a marriage in the village the next day. If we wouldn't like to join the ceremony? We wanted and went their again the next day. Once more the whole trip. But man, it's been worth it. A band of five musicians played on the ceremony. Four of them played gongs hanging on ropes from the roof. The fifth musician was a percussionist. Each gong had a different sound. That's all, four gongs and some drums, and they played some fantastic music, very similar to the music from Bali."
..... Charlie Mariano's hosts in Kuala Lumpur arrange a tour to the many temples of various religions which can be found in Malaysia. Visiting a South Indian temple Charlie Mariano suddenly hears some magical sound from an unknown source filling the air. He asks: "Please bring me there. I've to see where this sound comes from." The sound comes from a nadaswaram played by one of his prominent players, Muthaiah. The nadaswaram is a woodwind instrument from South India, using a double reed mouthpiece similar to that of the oboe. It has finger-holes like a flute.

[See → Sources for a detailed description of the nadaswaram.]

Charlie Mariano introduces himself to Muthaiah and asks him he would allow him to record his music on tape. Muthaiah agrees. So Charlie Mariano comes back with a tape recorder the next day, and the temple musicians play half an hour for him. He later asks Muthaiah if he was willing to teach him to play the nadaswaram. Muthaiah accepts. For the rest of his days in Malaysia Charlie Mariano uses his free time to study with Muthaiah. He gave him an instrument, and he also introduced him to the Indian notation which is completely different from the Western European notation.
Back in the US in October of 1967 Charlie Mariano says in an interview: "The fact that the instrument has seven holes only instead of claps is an advantage as well as a disadvantage. It's more flexible by that. You can play series of notes or even complete scales in a very fast tempo, and you've a broader range of intonation. On the other hand it's much harder to hit the notes — not to play out of tune. You've to hear every note before you play it. I practiced for five months — ten hours per day — instructed by my guru. But I'm far from calling myself a very competent player of the nadaswaram. It's an extremely difficult instrument. If I could play it better I could imagine to introduce it to the western music, playing jazz on it. Others already tried to combine Indian and western music, e.g. the 'Beatles.' I don't want to run them down — some of their sounds are really nice — but to be able to really do this, you've to understand those instruments and the music much better than those folks do. You can't deal with Indian music for a couple of weeks and believe you got it."
19 }
After very intense studies and having played the nadaswaram on many occasions during the '70s, Charlie Mariano now says: "I love the nadaswaram. But finally I gave it up. It's too difficult, and I had no chance to really apply it and to make use of it. It's very loud — unbelievably loud — hence an open air instrument. You need some specific music and a specific lineup. I used it a couple of times for recordings with western musicians to add a special color to the sound of the group. Actually I'm not much interested in that. The nadaswaram has to be used for playing classical South Indian music. That's the right place. But there are very few occasions to do that, not even when playing with Indian musicians."
..... Studying with Muthaiah left a deep impression on Charlie Mariano: "For me it's been a very special experience and another turning-point of my life. I became very interested in South Indian music. Actually my interest in any kind of ethnic music grew because I listened to a lot of that music. I wanted to learn more about it, listened to everything. And the different life style of those people hasn't been a 'culture shock' for me. I never experienced that anyway, wherever I've been. In fact sometimes I was surprised, but I never responded in a way I could often see with other Americans or Europeans. Some of them downright freak out because everything is so strange for them, and because they're not able to accept that people are so different."
Following his stay in Malaysia Charlie Mariano goes to Japan. He's been invited by Sadao Watanabe to tour with him and some other musicians from Japan. On this occasion they also have two studio sessions. This is the first recording of Charlie Mariano playing the nadaswaram. The recordings are "Charlie Mariano & Sadao Watanabe" and "Iberian Waltz" The nadaswaram can be heard on "Iberian Waltz".
Recording of "We Got a New Bug," another album with Sadao Watanabe, and Arif Mardin's "Glass Onion".
Recording of "Osmosis," self-titled album of Osmosis, founded by Charlie Mariano after his return from Malaysia, combining jazz and rock.
Charlie Mariano is invited by one of his students to visit Finland. Charlie Mariano performs in Pori, and in Molde, Norway.
On his second journey to Europe Charlie Mariano has his first encounter with drummer Edward Vesala from Finland.
1971 In Summer of 1971 Charlie Mariano gets another invitation to visit Europe by one of his former students at Berklee: flutist and composer Chris Hinze from The Netherlands. "My youngest daughter had completed high school, and I was of the opinion she could start going her own way," Charlie Mariano says laughing, "I just was sick to death of being a teacher. I'm a musician, and I wanted to play, nothing else. Only play at last. So I was curious to see how things would work for me in Europe."
Charlie Mariano lives in The Hague where Chris Hinze is located, too. He performs at the Holland Festival, and has some more gigs here and there, but he couldn't work continually. So he starts doing the same as most American jazz musicians do in Europe: traveling around and playing with local rhythm groups. "After a while I said to myself: you don't continue like that because you don't like it. You never had the time to rehearse. It always ended up playing the same songs."
Charlie Mariano refused to be in the role of a featured soloist all the time. He rather was interested in creating something new together with European musicians.
In 1977 Joachim-Ernst Berendt will write: "In some ways Charlie Mariano's role in Europe is similar to that of Oscar Pettiford at the end of the '50s, maybe not as conscious as Oscar, but also leaving impulses and stimulations at all places. Pettiford and Mariano don't just 'use' the musicians from Europe ... as a 'local rhythm section,' but really play, work, act together in true human and musical relations."
20 }

The English trumpeter and writer Ian Carr will write in 1987: "He created his most important work when he was over fifty. Living in Europe since the early '70s he felt that the environment was helpful for his art: in Europe competition, the pure musical contest, plays a secondary role only. In contrast the creation of atmospheres and moods, and the expression of emotions is of particular importance. Mariano's compositions and solos demonstrate an even broader range of emotions and a tightened, confident artistic attitude. His solos often are well and truly extraordinary — like a marmoreal sculpture. Each note tells something and has its own meaning. His alto sound expresses a powerful, almost haunting lyricism, as if the music was wrung out of him. In jazz there are very few parallels to the simplicity of Charlie Mariano's late work." 21 }

Pianist Jasper van't Hof from The Netherlands — a friend of Charlie Mariano — qualifies Ian Carr's statement 'Charlie Mariano's "most important" works had been created in Europe' as some European chauvinism, and reminds of the wonderful music recorded by Charlie Mariano in the US, e.g. with Charles Mingus.
..... Genesis of Ambush
John Surman leaves "The Trio" — John Surman, reeds; Barre Phillips, bass; Stu Martin, drums — one of the most important free jazz groups in Europe. Stu Martin calls Charlie Mariano. They know each other from gigs in New York.
Charlie Mariano remembers: "Stu had a baby face, a little redhead, who played some great drums. In the States he mostly worked with big bands. I first met him with the Maynard Ferguson band."
Stu Martin invites him to come to his house in Belgium. Charlie Mariano moves to Stu's house located in the south of Brussels. It's a big house with a lot of rooms. Besides Stu and his wife there live bassist Peter Warren, and one of Stu's friend, a non-musician. Charlie Mariano remembers that time as being funny and relaxed. "We hang around, did a lot of practice, talked, and made plans." Finally "Ambush" is found. Ambush gets attention as a free jazz group very soon. They play a lot of festivals all over Europe. But Charlie Mariano doesn't really feel comfortable with playing free. He says: "I've mixed feelings when it comes to free jazz up to this day. I think free jazz can be great music if it's played by the right musicians. John Surman as an example is a great musician. He doesn't play without any control, he has a good taste, and he has is educated musically which enables him to bring those free things together. But in some way I wasn't really fond of this type of music. Actually 'free' means that you can do anything you want to da, which also means that it can be fantastic at times, but it can also be dreadful at other times. Everything happens by accident. I didn't want to be involved in this — always having the 'chance' to play some really poor music. You never know. There's something else: there also were folks who couldn't play. They merely weren't good enough as musicians, though they took part counting on some gimmicks they'd rehearsed. That's obstructive and anything but helpful. But — as said before — there also are musicians who are capable of playing some great 'free' music. John Surman and Stu Martin were two of them." Ambush disbanded after ten months only, and
[to my knowledge] they never recorded.
..... During that time — when Charlie Mariano lived at Stu Martin's house — Charlie Mariano first met guitarist Philip Catherine from Belgium. Jasper van't Hof had encouraged Philip Catherine to contact Charlie Mariano. "Call him, he lives pretty close to you, near Brussels."
Lothar Lewien narrates the funny story about the first encounter between Charlie Mariano and Philip Catherine in his own words: "Philip made a date to introduce himself to the great American and to meet him in person. When he arrived at Stu Martin's house he was told that Charlie was still asleep. They would wake him up. Charlie Mariano had returned from an extended journey the night before. He felt exhausted and — having examined himself in a mirror — thought that he looked terrible. Charlie has an extraordinary growth of beard. His face is covered by close stubbles if he doesn't shave daily. He couldn't be bothered shaving or he didn't want his guest to wait any longer. On the other hand he couldn't bear to present himself to Philip Catherine in this untended look. On the spur of the moment Charlie Mariano decided to cut observation slits in a paper bag and pulled it over his head. He talked quite a while to Philip Catherine — who was completely baffled — without lifting his mask. When Jasper van't Hof ask Philip how things had gone he said it was interesting, they had exchanged musically and even developed some common ideas — but: 'How does this man actually look like?' Up to this day all folks involved tell this anecdote about masked Mariano, and they heartily laugh about baffled Philip Catherine."
..... First encounter between Charlie Mariano and drummer Pierre Favre from Switzerland when touring the south of France with Ambush. Pierre Favre tells him about a project of the Schauspielhaus in Zurich [Switzerland]. They are staging Peter Weiss' play Marat/Sade. Pianist George Gruntz is writing the music and putting a band together. Charlie Mariano is interested and contacts George Gruntz. "I'd never did something like that before and it always had appealed to me. The band included Pierre Favre, pianist Irène Schweizer, trumpeter Ted Curson, and some others. I also remember a trombone player from Sweden. We didn't play in the orchestra pit but on stage wearing funny costumes. We rehearsed for a month, and we had twelve performances only during the first month after the premiere. Though we were paid for the whole month. This went on for the second as well as for the third month with two performances only. Wonderful. I had a great time in Zurich. At the end I'd saved enough money to be able to travel to India. I'd planned to do that after meeting Muthaiah in Malaysia. I knew that Muthaiah had returned to South India."
Charlie Mariano meets the German band Embryo.
Talking to Rainer Blome
[reviewer for the Sounds magazine] members of Embryo said: "He visited us, spent the night at our home, and sometime he jammed with us. The musical communication worked among us. Hence — as a logical consequence — we also performed with him on concerts ... As a matter of course we were surprised because we thought Charlie Mariano played in another league. Charlie had a strong interest in pop music from the very beginning ... In addition to that he wants — similar to us — to incorporate influences and ways of playing of Eastern Asian music. His only instruction was: we shouldn't care about him. We should play the same way we did without him. Charlie has a phenomenal musical ear. The recording took place shortly before Christmas of 1972. Charlie already had the ticket to India in his pocket." 22 }
The album is titled "We Keep On"
1973 Charlie Mariano moves in the house of Muthaiah who lives in Thiruvarankulum, a small village located 200 kilometers south of Madras, India. He'll stay for almost half a year. Just on his arrival he witnesses one of those common, arranged marriages. Charlie Mariano remembers: "I believe they both liked each other. It's been a wonderful experience to be able to be a part of this completely different way of life."
There is no electricity in the house, no toilet, no western comfort at all. As a matter of course there also are no foreigners and no strangers in the village. Probably most villagers never before have seen any foreigner. The village has an old temple. The villagers proudly tell him that the temple was about one thousand year old. "The temple actually was impressive. Whenever the family went there — most of them were indeed temple musicians — they took me with them. Apart from that I had a well-regulated daily routine. Every day I had my first lesson at six thirty in the morning. The second was at 11:30 a.m. and the last one at six thirty in the evening. In the morning I practiced new songs and Indian scales together with Muthaiah. In the afternoon I practiced alone. We all went to bed at sunset which is pretty early. But I was happy. I was satisfied with me and with the world in Thiruvarankulum. It gave me so much peace and ease of mind. Man, you get a distance to all those things which have driven you and which — you thought — were important. You'd nothing to do but to concentrate on your lessons. There was no TV, nothing. Most villagers hadn't even heard about TV. I was a member of the family. They all were very, very nice. They were very religious. That's a part of everyday life in any South Indian village. Religion counts. Life is actually very different from anything you're accustomed to. I learned a lot from those people. Then the food. Man, I liked it. I still like it and sometimes I cook some meals I got to know then. Everything made a deep impression on me. Once I went to a far-off temple with Muthaiah's brothers and their wives and babies. It must have been some very special temple because it seemed to be some kind of pilgrimage. The brothers had shaved their heads and took a bath in the river. I didn't have to do anything of that, neither shaving my head nor taking a bath. They were so peaceful and friendly. We actually weren't able to talk to each other — we only had our body language. Though we comprehended each other. Sometimes we even made the long journey to Madras because Muthaiah's sister was married there. He played at the ceremony and I played with him. Man, that was great. There also was a temple music festival. I participated in anything."
..... When Charlie Mariano returns from India in early Summer of 1973 Jasper van't Hof picks him up at the airport of Amsterdam. They know each other from encounters between Ambush and Association P.C. at several festivals/gigs. Then 26 years old Jasper van't Hof is one of the most prominent musicians on the European jazz-rock scene. McCoy Tyner is his greatest idol among the piano players. It's been his dream to work with this saxophone player from America who's at home in all areas of progressive jazz.
Jasper van't Hof recalls: "I met Charlie Mariano the very first time at the Domizil in Munich in 1971. I knew his music from recordings which had made a deep impression on me as a young boy. I actually slobbered over this Charlie Mariano sounding from my gramophone spinning 'Mingus, Mingus, Mingus.' Well, all of a sudden this legend from my recordings stands face to face to me in the Domizil. I started talking to him. He was very, very friendly and he had a fine sense of humor. I felt very comfortable in his company. Charlie hadn't played at the Domizil, nor had I. Each of us had had a gig somewhere else. At that time you went to the Domizil after a gig in Munich. Man, I met a lot of people there. Later on I toured with Toto Blanke, the German guitarist, a hell of a musician. We played a concert in Baden-Baden, meeting Charlie again who played with Ambush. We had had a double concert and we noticed that we liked each other a lot. I listened to his concert and he listened to mine. We couldn't start to do anything together because he planned to go to India. But he gave me his address. So we could keep contact by mail. I actually wrote to him."
Charlie Mariano spends some days at Jasper van't Hof's house in Enschede. After two days of talking and music they go into the studio to record some music. "The whole thing was absolutely 'free,' the way it spontaneously came," Charlie Mariano remembers. Jasper van't Hof laughs when thinking of those recordings. "Charlie must have the tape. I believe he hides it at home."
Producer Joachim-Ernst Berendt arranges a summit meeting of alto saxophonists. On July 15th Gary Bartz, Lee Konitz, Charlie Mariano, and Jacky McLean meet in a studio in Copenhagen, accompanied by pianist Joachim Kühn, bassist Palle Danielsson, and drummer Han Bennink. The session will be released on an album titled "Altissimo."
Charlie Mariano again lives at Stu Martin's house near Brussels. He receives a request from the rock group Supersister from The Netherlands. They had heard about his co-operation with Embryo, and were interested to play with him, too. Charlie Mariano: "Yeah. Why not if they are professionals." The members of Supersister can convince him. Charlie Mariano performs with Supersister for several years. He can be heard on their album "Iskander," which also features him on the nadaswaram.
By the end of the year 1973 Charlie Mariano moves to The Hague, home of Supersister.
Around that time he meets another musician who will become a friend and musical companion: pianist, keyboard and synthesizer player, and composer Wolfgang Dauner. He's the pianist on Sigi Busch's recording "Age Of Miracles." Charlie Mariano plays alto and soprano saxophones, Sigi Busch plays bass and tuba, and has composed all songs. The group is completed by Ed Kröger on trombone and Kasper Winding on drums.
..... In December of 1973 Charlie Mariano and Jasper van't Hof meet again at the Jazz Meeting Baden-Baden organized by Joachim-Ernst Berendt who works for the SWR at that time. They work together for a week, and play a concert together which is broadcasted.
Broadcasts 1973
Joachim-Ernst Berendt has invited some great musicians for this meeting. Besides Charlie and Jasper there are: trumpeters Mongezi Feza and Uli Beckerhoff, trombonist Albert Mangelsdorff, alto saxophonist Dieter Scherf, clarinetist Perry Robinson, tenor saxophonist Bobby Jones, violinist Zbigniew Seifert, guitarists Toto Blanke and Philip Catherine, keyboarders Dave McRae, Wolfgang Dauner and Chris McGregor, bassists Palle Danielsson, Peter Trunk and Jean François Jenny-Clark, drummers Edward Vesala and John Marshall, percussionist Okay Temiz, and vocalist Norma Winstone.
During the meeting Jasper van't Hof and Charlie Mariano decide to found their own group. That's the genesis of "Pork Pie" which will become one of Europe's most important jazz-rock groups. Jasper van't Hof reports: "I played with Jean-Luc Ponty at that time, and with Philip Catherine on guitar and Aldo Romano on drums. We had a gig in Paris and we called Charlie. He come to play with us. Actually that's been the real start of Pork Pie. The band hit the scene like a bomb. First in France, then in Germany, then all over the place. Pork Pie built a base for Charlie which enabled him to actually work with European musicians. This was a band every musician involved could make a contribution to. All of us have written songs for the group. We talked a lot about concepts, processes, tempos, dynamics, developments, and structure. Everything was on such a high level I've never experienced again. It just was the right band at the right time, without having been planned way beforehand. It just happened because five folks had fun doing it. Charlie had a strong influence on each of us. He had great experience from his time in the USA. In addition there were his influences from India. By means of Pork Pie Charlie became a musician being accessible for everyone in Europe. He toured, he became acquainted with Europe, and he comprehended and liked it more and more. The time with the band simply was fantastic. As an example we played in Paris for half a year at the River-Bop. A humdinger, a club with enormous energy. Philip
[Catherine] and I we both felt the same with regard to Charlie, and we were glad to be able to play with him. You just have to imagine: you get the chance to play with someone whom you adored as a youngster. That's really a dream coming true. Charlie played beautifully with Pork Pie, so melodically..."
German writer Karl Lippegaus about Pork Pie: "Keyboarder Jasper van' Hof founded Pork Pie after his retirement from German/Dutch Association P.C. ... Pork Pie now is regarded as one of the most interesting bands of this genre. Translated to American circumstances you could call them a 'Supergroup' with regard to the personnel: besides Jasper van't Hof there was guitarist Philip Catherine from Belgium, French bassist Jean François Jenny-Clark, Italian drummer Aldo Romano — all of them European top class musicians. In addition to that there is one of the most visionary and imaginative American saxophonists since the '50s: Charlie Mariano ... Pork Pie plays the jazz of the '70s with a new ramification and conviction. At their best moments this music has more dimensions and facets than most American bands."
23 }
..... There were some fine jazz-rock groups in Europe at that time, namely Ian Carr's Nucleus, Barbara Thompson's Paraphernalia, Klaus Doldinger's Passport, and Pork Pie. A lot of jazz purists didn't like this new direction at all. Charlie Mariano comments: "Purism is poor. I'm not a purist."
Recording of "Reflections" with musicians from Finland, namely Eero Koivistoinen on tenor & soprano saxophones. Among others they record "Brother Muthaiah" and "Thiruvarankulum" — Charlie Mariano's homage to India — and titles like Miles Davis' "Blue In Green" and John Coltrane's "Naima." The album finally earns Charlie Mariano some awareness with the American audience. The album also gets a five stars rating by the reviewer for Down Beat. Though being successful in Europe, Charlie Mariano suffers from not being noticed in his homeland. In the USA he still is known as the saxophonist who played with Stan Kenton, Toshiko, and Charles Mingus.
A short anecdote demonstrates this ignorance: After a concert in the '70s Archie Shepp approached Charlie to tell him that he'd played well with Mingus. Charlie Mariano: "Actually Archie had wanted to pay me a compliment. In truth he hurt me because he completely ignored what I played now."
Pork Pie performs at Onkel Pö in Hamburg. One night Eberhard Weber drops in. He's just starting his group Colours, and asks Charlie Mariano if he would like to play with the new band. "Why not?" There it is again — Charlie Mariano's typical answer. Now he plays with both groups, Pork Pie and Colours. In addition to that he also plays with Toto Blanke's Electric Circus and some other bands.
Remembering this time Jasper van't Hof's feelings are a mix of woefulness and anger: "At that time the whole Pork Pie thing got a jinx on it. ECM offered a contract, but MPS offered a better one. That's been the beginning of all those political things in the music business ... ECM put a lot of pressure on Charlie. They wanted him to play with Eberhard Weber — he necessarily needed a band. Then Vera Brandes — our manager — quit to work for Colours, too. That was the end of Pork Pie. Both groups couldn't exist side by side. I no longer had the power to resist the pressure. Manfred Eicher and ECM won the game. Charlie doesn't bear the blame, he just wanted to play. But others used him for their own sake, they got their inspiration from his music. Take our Pork Pie album Transitory as an example. It's actually a rock ballad. Charlie made it what it is by his Indian background and those airy sounds. Charlie has been inconceivably important for the whole musical development in Europe at those times. He is one of the godfathers of the Total Music, of this kind of jazz music."
Charlie Mariano sings highest praises about his co-operation with Eberhard Weber: "It was a wonderful experience. Eberhard is a great musician and his band was outstanding. We started with Eberhard on bass, Rainer Brüninghaus on piano, Jon Christensen on drums and me on soprano — because Eberhard doesn't like the alto," he adds laughing, shaking his head, "he liked my playing, but not on the alto. I said: 'OK, now I play the soprano, it doesn't matter."
Eberhard Weber who — like Wolfgang Dauner — is from Stuttgart, becomes one of the most important and successful musicians of European jazz.
Eberhard Weber's first album titled "The Colours Of Chloë" — featuring Ack van Rooyen on flugelhorn — is awarded with the "Großer Deutscher Schallplattenpreis." After his excursion to rock, playing with Embryo and Supersister, Charlie Mariano is strongly attracted by Eberhard Weber's concept.
Eberhard Weber defines his music as "a synthesis of rhythmics, originally coming from jazz, and sound patterns and sound ideas from classical music ... The patience to repeat a certain phrase many times without losing intensity or the necessity to have someone improvising on that ..."
24 }
Charlie Mariano feels at home with Eberhard Weber's music. Colours reaches the same level of group interaction as Pork Pie.
In 1982 pianist and author Michael Naura will write about Colours and the leader: "Eberhard Weber founded his own band to get rid of his reputation of being a 'destroyer.' He'll call this quartet 'Colours' later ... The first album titled 'Yellow Fields' from 1975 already clearly reveals his intentions. He aims at the primacy of quiet, subtle sounds capes, at breaks, at avoiding instrumental mania for the sake of an abstinence which almost gives a monastical impression. The freedom to express oneself is one of the awesome essentials of jazz. Eberhard Weber was so smart in gradually dosing this freedom to his musicians that they indeed didn't lose their identity, but more and more became improvising interpreters of their master from Stuttgart."
25 }
..... Charlie Mariano still lives in The Hague at that time (mid of March, 1975), traveling from there to gigs, recording sessions, and performances. Meanwhile he had quit Supersister. Now the government of The Netherlands gives him a hard time. Charlie Mariano doesn't get a work permit. Jasper van't Hof tries to help — in vain. Being Dutch himself, he explains to the administration that Charlie will play in his group. They tell him that he had to hire a musician from The Netherlands instead. But Charlie plays the Indian nadaswaram, and no Dutch musician can do that. So what? Jasper is filled with bitterness. He isn't able to help his American friend: "I had to proof as an employer that Charlie couldn't be replaced by any musician from The Netherlands. I had to try others before they would give me any chance to even request a work permit for Charlie, let alone to get it. It's been a bureaucratic scandal which made me go through all phases: from the city — to the province — to the government. I became extraordinarily angry. During a phone call with one of those deputies I actually wanted to throw the guy on the line against the wall. I threw the phone against the wall. Result: a broken-down phone, and Charlie had to leave The Netherlands."
Charlie Mariano needs to have the patience of a saint for months to be able to even fulfill his obligations outside the country. On each return to The Hague he is held up by Dutch officers. Charlie Mariano — shaking his head — remembers the questions he had to answer again and again: "Why do you visit The Netherlands? How long are you going to stay? How much money do you have in your pockets? Do you have a ticket to America? Everybody is astonished when I tell this. One can hardly believe it. But it's been exactly like that. Jasper was pissed off. Then I learned that some of the studio musicians in Hilversum wanted me to leave the country. That's incredible because I didn't want to take their jobs. Sometimes I played a gig as a soloist in Hilversum, but I never did any studio jobs. But it's the same at all places. It's wrong to think that everybody says: 'Oh, the guy is in town and he plays well. Let's make use of him.' No, no, it's totally different. Far from it! Thank God! I didn't need any studio jobs because I had enough work. OK, anyway, I was fed up with the annoyance of the Dutch administration. I wanted to go back home — to Boston."
..... In 1975 Charlie Mariano leaves Europe after five years to try a comeback in the USA. He has been in contact with Berklee. Being aware of all odds to come by his own experience Charlie Mariano again works as a teacher at the Berklee School of Music. He needs it as a safety to check the US jazz scene.
Charlie Mariano: "So I started working at Berklee with my best intentions. But already on my second day I almost went crazy. Obviously I had forgotten why I'd quit five years before. Hence I went to the office to pack in my job. I only wanted to get out of it. The guy in the office was very nice. He stayed calm and said that he could understand me. But then he started to talk at me. There was nobody else who could replace me. They would be in trouble, the students would be in trouble, etc. Very well then! I finished the semester. But only one single semester. I swore by myself: never ever teaching at Berklee or somewhere else.
During the years from 1975 to 1984 Charlie Mariano commuted between Europe and the USA.
1976 The Organization Jazz India — organizing the Jazz Yatra Festival in India — invites Charlie Mariano to come to Bombay. He is offered to play at the Sheraton hotel for free habitation and food. Charlie Mariano accepts and stays for a month. At the Sheraton he plays with percussionist Trilok Gurtu for the first time. The other members of the band are pianist Louis Banks from Nepal, bassist Peter Saldenha from India, and Anglo-Indian drummer Johnny Edwards.
Charlie Mariano remembers: "We didn't play standards but new, modern things and a couple of songs composed by Louis Banks. I felt again that India is fantastic. I asked myself: what else can you study here. I had lots of time and I was curious. So I got into contact with the director of the music department of Radio India. He was a flutist who had succeeded Ravi Shankar. Hence I studied the bamboo flute with him. I had a wonderful time in Bombay. It's really a fantastic city. The more sad and stunned I am watching pictures of violence on the streets of Bombay nowadays. fanaticism is terrible — may it be founded on religion or whatever."
Back from Bombay Charlie Mariano joins Colours again. ECM organizes a US tour which is very successful. At the same time some other ECM groups tour the USA: Jack DeJohnette, Gary Burton, Terje Rypdal, and Oregon. Charlie Mariano also remembers one concert at the Lincoln Center in New York when Keith Jarrett — one of the big stars of ECM — performed, too. Eberhard Weber returns to Germany after the tour. Charlie Mariano stays in the USA. He has got into contact with bassist Ron McClure who toured with Jack DeJohnette. Charlie Mariano can live at Ron McClure's house near New York. He can make a living working as a studio musician. Charlie Mariano remembers a recording session for a Ringo Starr album. A group of musicians — including Mike and Randy Brecker —recorded the background music which had been arranged by Arif Mardin.
Charlie Mariano: "Arif Mardin had been one of my students at Berklee. Well, student isn't correct. He already knew more about arranging than me. He later became the chief producer of Atlantic."
Arif Mardin is capable and willing to support Charlie Mariano by giving him more jobs in the studios. But Charlie Mariano doesn't really like to work as a studio musician though it is way better than teaching.
Once he has a really good jazz gig: one week at the renowned Sweet Basil in Greenwich Village. Charlie Mariano plays with Ron McClure, drummer Bob Moses, and pianist and Berklee alumnus Mike Nock from New Zealand. Charlie Mariano: "It's been a fantastic week. A lot of musicians came to Sweet Basil to check us out. In New York everybody keeps an eye on everybody else, one stalks each other. But that's totally normal on the scene there."
..... Around that time Bob Thiele, producer of Impulse, strongly promotes his wife, vocalist Teresa Brewer. He records her and he organizes tours. He also wants to visit Romania and he wants Charlie Mariano for this tour. "Why not? I never visited Romania. It gave me the chance to see something I'd never had seen before: a communist country. We arrived there two weeks after the terrible earthquake which hit Romania at that time. The cities looked horrible. Total rows of houses had been destroyed. The way they dealt with us was almost as bad. Everything under control. We were always accompanied by a guide, at any time. We weren't able to do anything, anywhere on our own. Though we met some interesting musicians from Romania. I remember a baritone saxophonist whose idol had been Serge Chaloff. He downright freaked out when he learned that I was in Romania. As a matter of course he knew that Serge had played with me in Boston. This guy and his friends told me how awful things were for them in Romania. They weren't able to play what they wanted to play but only what the government allowed them to play. Unbelievable. The baritone saxophonist was a Jew. His parents had survived the concentration camps. He later could emigrate to Israel. I hope he's fine."
..... After his return to the USA Charlie Mariano can work as a studio musician again. He's paid well, but it's boring for him. So he doesn't hesitate to return to Germany when Eberhard Weber, who is planning a tour of Colours, gives him a call. Meanwhile Jon Christensen had been replaced by Danny Gottlieb who had played with Gary Burton before.
In Europe things work out well for Charlie Mariano: "I did a lot of things — way more than in the USA. I played with Colours. We toured and recorded. I also worked with Jasper van't Hof and Pork Pie again. We also recorded and played concerts. Finally I frequently visited Finland to play there. Then I recorded with Chris Hinze, and with Philip Catherine and Jasper van't Hof for the CMP and MPS labels. I also quite often played with Wolfgang Dauner and other musicians who lived in Stuttgart at that time: Ack van Rooyen, Zbigniew Seifert, Janusz Stefanski, Adelhard Roidinger, and others — I can't list all of them, wonderful musicians. I was actually sought after. I was well, and I always had enough and decent food which hadn't been a matter of course for me," Charlie adds laughing.
..... Albert Mangelsdorff about Charlie Mariano: "I already knew him from listening to his work with Kenton and other stuff. One was familiar with his things from the '50s and '60s. I met him first in Tokyo when I toured Asia with my quintet in 1964. Charlie and Toshiko came to our concert. On that occasion we met each other in person. We only played together in the '70s when he came to Europe. I was thankful to every institution offering a chance to work with him, e.g. the Jazz Meeting in Baden-Baden. We played a duo which way very, very nice. There were a lot of other occasions. Charlie also worked a lot with very young musicians. I assume that he had a big influence on them. Other musicians — especially younger musicians — can learn a lot from Charlie — not only by his background but also by his entire personality. For me he one of the most comfortable colleagues at all. It's wonderful to work with him. I also happy to stand side by side with him when we play with the United Jazz + Rock Ensemble. Having played in this band for such a long time you also know each other better. After all those years I'm not able to tell any negative side of Charlie. He is a wonderful person."
1977recording First recording of the United Jazz + Rock Ensemble: "Live im Schützenhaus." Recordings
Charlie Mariano moves to Berlin. He lives with a girlfriend.
Charlie Mariano moves around Germany.
"That's never been a problem. I didn't own many things, just some trunks and boxes. That's been all I carried with me dashing around the country. The most important thing was staying in touch with those folks I played with. But musicians don't have any difficulties with it. They grow accustomed to looking for and finding each other. You always know someone who knows someone else's current location."
Springrecording Recording of Bob Thiele's "The Mysterious Flying Orchestra." Recordings
Charlie Mariano moves to Buchholz near Hamburg where he lives with another girlfriend in the house of pianist Joachim Kühn who has moved to Kiel at that time..
1979 Charlie Mariano moves to Munich. "I think I was fed up with "
..... to be continued

Sources (quoted by Lothar Lewien or added by hepcat1950)
  1. "Masters of Music", published by Berklee Press [source] → back to quote
  2. Dizzy Gillespie: "To Be Or Not To Bop", Hannibal-Verlag, 1984, page 191 → back
  3. ibidem, page 196 → back
  4. Ross Russell: "Bird lebt", Hannibal-Verlag, 1985, page 125 → back
  5. ibidem, page 21 → back
  6. Dizzy Gillespie: "To Be Or Not To Bop", Hannibal-Verlag, 1984, page 197 → back
  7. Jazz Podium, issue 7, August 1956, page 11 → back
  8. Metronome, USA, January 1956, page 25 → back
  9. ibidem → back
  10. Dizzy Gillespie: "To Be Or Not To Bop", Hannibal-Verlag, 1984, page 300 → back
  11. Liner notes to Beauties Of 1918 (Charlie Mariano ~ Jerry Dodgion Sextet) → back
  12. ibidem → back
  13. Kevin Seeley: Bill Chase – October 20, 1934 – August 9, 1974 (→ Source) → back
  14. quote from Nat Hentoff's liner notes to "Toshiko Mariano Quartet" → back
  15. Down Beat, October 26, 1961 → back
  16. ibidem → back
  17. Down Beat, June 1961 → back
  18. quoted from G. Endress: "Jazz-Podium," Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, 1980, page 177 → back
  19. "The Christian Science Monitor," USA, October 2, 1967 → back
  20. Joachim-Ernst Berendt: "Ein Fenster aus Jazz," S. Fischer Verlag, 1977 → back
  21. Ian Carr et al: "Jazz - The Essential Companion," Grafton-Books, London, 1987, page 326 → back
  22. quoted from the liner notes to: "Embryo: We Keep On", BASF 20 21865-1, 1973 → back
  23. Karl Lippegaus in: "Die Story des Jazz," edited by J.E. Berendt, Deutsche Verlagsanstalt, 1975, page 180 → back
  24. quoted from Martin Kunzler: "Jazz Lexikon," Rowohlt Taschenbuch Verlag, 1988, page 1295 → back
  25. Michael Naura: "Jazz Toccata," Rowohlt Taschenbuch Verlag, 1991, page 188 → back

Index (→ Song Index)

52nd Street   1960

ACE Studio   1947
Airto → Moreira, Airto
Akiyoshi, Toshiko   19.. 53, 59, 65, 74, 76
Albrecht, Peter → Andrews, Pete
Albuquerque   1945
Alley, Vernon   1953
Ambush   19.. 71a, 71b, 73a, 73b
Amsterdam [The Netherlands]   1973
Andrews, Pete   19.. 42a, 42b
Anglo-Indian   1976
Asia   19.. 67, 76
Association P.C.   19.. 73a, 73b
Atlantic [label]   1976

Baden-Baden [Germany]   19.. 73a, 73b, 76
Baker, Chet   19.. 53, 56
Bali   1967
Banks, Louis   1976
Bartz, Gary   1973
Basie, Count   19.. 38, 45, 49
Beatles, The   1967
Beckerhoff, Uli   1973
Belgium   19.. 71a, 71b, 73
Bennink, Han   1973
Bennett, Max   1953
bebop   1960
Berendt, Joachim-Ernst   19.. 73, 77
— College   19.. 45, 60, 65
— School of Music   19.. 58, 71, 75, 76
Berlin [Germany]   1977
Berlin, Irving   1923
Berliner, Jay   1963
Bethlehem (record label)   1956
Billy Berg's   1945
Bird → Parker, Charlie
Birdland   19.. 60a, 60b
Blanke, Toto   19.. 73a, 73b, 75
Blome, Rainer   1972
Blue Note [Paris, France]   1964
body language   1973
Bombay [India]   1976
Borden, Ray   1947
Borneo [Malaysia]   1967
— City   19.. 23, 42, 42, 45, 48, 65, 75, 76
— Conservatory of Music   1953
Braff, Ruby   1942
Brandes, Vera   1975
Brecker, Mike   1976
Brecker, Randy   1976
Brewer, Teresa   1976
Broadway   1960
Brown, Ray   1945
Brüninghaus, Rainer   1975
Brussels [Belgium]   19.. 71a, 71b, 73
Burns, Ralph   1949
Burton, Gary   19.. 58, 76a, 76b
Busch, Sigi   1973
Butterfield, Don   1963
Byard, Jaki   19.. 46, 48, 49, 50, 53a, 53b, 63a, 63b
Byrd, Donald   1964

California   19.. 43, 45
Campbell, Bunny   1942
Canada   1960
Candid   1960
Candido   1954
Carr, Ian   19.. 87, 73
Carter, Benny   1945
Carter, Jack   1950
Carter, Ron   1964
Caruso, Enrico   1923
Catalan   1964
Catherine, Philip   19.. 71, 73a, 73b, 76
— Serge   19.. 46, 48, 49, 53, 55, 76
— Margaret (Serge's mother)   1953
Cherico, Gene   1960
Chinese   1967
Christensen, Jon   19.. 75, 76
Christy, June   1954
CMP [label]   1976
Collins, Dick   1953
Colours   19.. 75, 75, 76a, 76b, 76c
Coltrane, John   19.. 45, 62a, 62b, 65, 74
communist   1976
concentration camps   1976
Conn School of Music   1945
Connecticut   1960
Contemporary   1956
Copenhagen [Denmark]   19.. 64, 73
Cranshaw, Bob   1963
Cropley, Floyd   1942
Curson, Ted   1971

Danielsson, Palle   19.. 73a, 73b
Dauner, Wolfgang   19.. 73a, 73b, 75, 76
Davis, Duke   19.. 42a, 42b
Davis, Jerry   1942
Davis, Miles   19.. 60, 74
Davis, Richard   1965
Denmark   1964
de Sade, Marquis   1971
DeJohnette, Jack   1976
Dodgion, Jerry   1956
Doldinger, Klaus   1973
Domizil   1973
Donahue, Sam   1942
Down Beat   19.. 42, 74

earthquake   1976
East Coast   1960
ECM   19.. 75, 76
Edwards, Johnny   1976
Eicher, Manfred   1975
El Tropico   19.. 42a, 42b
Electric Circus   1975
Ellington, Duke   19.. 38, 45, 63
Embryo   19.. 72, 73, 75
England   1966
Enschede [The Netherlands]   1973
Ericson, Rolf   1963
Erskine, Peter   1964
Ervin, Booker   1962
Europe   19.. 64, 70, 71

Fallo [Italy]   1913
Favre, Pierre   1971
Feldman, Victor   1956
Ferguson, Maynard   19.. 60, 71
Feza, Mongezi   1973
Finland   19.. 70, 74, 76
Five Spot   19.. 60a, 60b
Florida   1943
Four Freshmen   1964
France   19.. 64, 71, 73a, 73b
free jazz   1971
Freeman, Russ   19.. 55, 56

Garner, Erroll   1954
Gelder, Rudy van → van Gelder, Rudy
Germany   1973
Gershwin, George   19.. 23, 53
Gibbs, Mike   1958
Gilberto, Astrud   1966
Gillespie, Dizzy   19.. 45, 45, 53, 54, 63
Gitler, Ira   1953
Giuffre, Jimmy   1956
Goodman, Benny   19.. 38, 45
Gordon, Joe   1948
Gottlieb, Danny   1976
Granz, Norman   1959
Greenwich Village   1976
Gruntz, George   1971
Gryce, Gigi   19.. 46, 48
Gurtu, Trilok   1976

Hackensack   1965
Hafer, Dick   1963
Hague, The [The Netherlands]   19.. 71, 73, 75
Haig, Al   1945
Half Note   19.. 60a, 60b
Hall, Jim   1963
Hamburg [Germany]   1975
Hancock, Herbie   1953
Handy, John   1960
Hanna, Roland   1965
Haroutunian, Vardi   19.. 48, 53, 58
Harris, Bill   1953
Hawkins, Hawkins   1945
Heath, Albert "Tootie"   19.. 63a, 63b
Heath brothers   1962
Hentoff, Nat   1948
Herman, Woody   1953
Hermosa Beach   1955
Hessian Youth Orchestra   1964
Higgins, Billy   1956
Hilversum [The Netherlands]   1975
Hinze, Chris   19.. 65, 71, 76
Hodges, Johnny   19.. 45, 63
Holland Festival   1971
Hollywood   1945
Holman, Bill   1953
Hooks, Charlie   1942
Humair, Daniel   1964
Hungary   1942

Imperial   19.. 50, 51
Impulse   19.. 63a, 63b, 65, 76
India   19.. 71, 73, 76
Indians   1967
Israel   1976
Italy   1973
Izzy's   19.. 42a, 42b, 42c, 42d

Jackson, Albert   1962
Jackson, Chubby   1953
— Jackson~Harris Herd   1953
Jackson, Milt   19.. 45, 62
Jackson, Quentin   1963
Japan   19.. 60, 66, 67a, 67b
Jarrett, Keith   19.. 58, 76
Jazz Meeting Baden-Baden   19.. 73, 76
jazz-rock   1973
Jazz Workshop   19.. 53, 58
Jenny-Clark, Jean François   19.. 73a, 73b
Jew   1976
Johnson, Harry   1953
Jones, Bobby   1973
Jones, Elvin   1965
Jones, Hank   1965
Jones, Quincy   19.. 42, 46, 64

Kamuca, Richie   1956
Kansas   19.. 43, 45, 55, 65
Kenton, Stan   19.. 53a, 53b, 59, 63, 64, 75, 76
— Summer Camp   1964
Kern, Jerome   1923
Koivistoinen, Eero   1974
Konitz, Lee   19.. 53, 54, 73
Kriedt, Dave van → van Kriedt, Dave
Kröger, Ed   1973
Kuala Lumpur [Malaysia]   1966
Kühn, Joachim   1973

La Faro, Scott   1956
Leonia   1960
Levey, Stan   19.. 45, 56
Lewien, Lothar   1953
Lewis, Mel   19.. 53, 63
Lighthouse   19.. 55, 56
Lincoln Center   1976
Lippegaus, Karl   1973
Littman, Peter   1950
London [UK]   1966
Los Angeles   1955
Lunceford, Jimmie   1945
Lynn   1949

MacDonald, Joe   19.. 47, 53a, 53b
Madras [India]   19.. 73a, 73b
Malaysia   19.. 66, 71
Mangelsdorff, Albert   19.. 73, 76
Manhattan   1960
Manne, Shelly   19.. 55, 56
— Shelly Manne And His Men   1955
Marat, Jean-Paul   1971
Marcus, Steve   1958
Mardin, Arif   19.. 68, 76
— Charlie   19.. 42a, 42b, 42c, 45
— Colina (sister)   19.. 13, 23, 41
— Cynthia (daughter)   1965
— Giovanni (father)   1913
— Maria Digirronimo (mother)   1913
— Toshiko (wife) → Akiyoshi, Toshiko
Marshall, Eddie   1960
Marshall, John [drummer]   1973
Martin, Stu   19.. 71, 73
Massachusetts   19.. 23, 60
Matsumoto, Hidehiko "Sleepy"   1964
McClure, Ron   19.. 76a, 76b
McFarland, Gary   1958
McGregor, Chris   1973
McLean, Jackie   1973
McRae, Dave   1973
Merian, Leon   1942
Mexico   19.. 45, 61
Michiru, Monday   19.. 63, 65
Mingus, Charles   19.. 62, 63, 71, 73, 74
Miyazama, Akira   1964
modal scales   1960
Molde [Norway]   1970
Montoliu, Tete   1964
Moreira, Airto   1966
Moses, Bob   1976
MPS [label]   19.. 75, 76
Mraz, George   1966
Mulligan, Gerry   19.. 53, 60
Munich [Germany]   19.. 73, 79
Mussulli, Boots   1953
Muthaiah   19.. 67, 71, 73

nadaswaram   19.. 67, 67, 73, 75
Naura, Michael   1975
Nepal   1976
Netherlands, The   19.. 67a, 67b, 71, 73, 75
New England   1953
New Jersey   19.. 60, 65
New York   19.. 60, 64, 64, 76a, 76b
New Zealand   1976
Newport Festival   1963
Niehaus, Lennie   1953
Nock, Mike   19.. 58, 76
Norway   1970
Noto, Sam   1953
Nulceus   1973

Onkel Pö [Hamburg]   1975
Opera   1923
oboe   1967
Oregon   1976
Orlandi, Al   1942
Ørsted-Pedersen, Niels-Henning   1964
Ort's Grill   19.. 42a, 42b, 42c
Osmosis   1970

Paraphernalia   1973
Paris [France]   19.. 64, 73a, 73b
Parker, Charlie   19.. 45a, 45b, 45c, 45d, 53, 54, 60a, 60b, 63
Passport   1973
Pearl Harbor   1942
Pepper, Art   1953
Perkins, Bill   1953
Peterson, Oscar   1959
Pettiford, Oscar   1977
Philadelphia   1962
Philippines   1967
Phillips, Barre   1971
Pierce, Nat   19.. 42, 45, 47
pilgrimage   1973
Pomeroy, Herb   19.. 42, 48, 50, 53, 58, 66
Ponty, Jean-Luc   19.. 64, 73
Porcino, Al   1953
Pori [Finland]   1970
Pork Pie   19.. 73a, 73b, 73c, 73d, 75a, 75b, 76
Porter, Cole   1923
Powell, Bud   19.. 49, 53, 59, 64
Prestige   1951

Radio India   1976
Redondo Beach   55, 56
Richmond, Dannie   19.. 62, 62, 63
Richards, Ann   1953
Richardson, Jerome   1963
Riel, Alex   1964
right of residence   1958
River-Bop [Paris, France]   1973
Rivers, Sam   19.. 46, 48, 53
Robinson, Perry   1973
rock   19.. 70, 75
Roidinger, Adelhard   1976
Roker, Mickey   1963
Romania   1976
Romano, Aldo   19.. 73a, 73b
Ronnie Scott's Club   1966
Rosolino, Frank   19.. 55, 56
Rumsey, Howard   1955
Russell, Ross   1945
Rypdal, Terje   1976

Saldenha, Peter   1976
Sanborn, David   1964
Sandiford, Preston   1942
Santici, Ray   19.. 48, 53
Scherf, Dieter   1973
— Josef   1945
— House   19.. 45, 58
— theory of music   1945
Schweizer, Irène   1971
Sebesky, Don   1963
Seifert, Zbigniew   19.. 73, 76
Selmer   1964
Shank, Bud   1956
Shankar, Ravi   1976
Shaughnessy, Ed   1963
sheets of sound   1962
Shepp, Archie   1974
Sheraton   1976
Smith, Willie   1945
Soho   1966
Sounds [magazine]   1972
South Asia   19.. 67a, 67b
South India   19.. 67, 71
Springfield   1960
Stamm, Marvin   1963
Starr, Ringo   1976
Stefanski, Janusz   1976
Stockholm [Sweden]   1964
Stuttgart [Germany]   19.. 75a, 75b, 76
Summer Camp   1964
Supersister   19.. 73, 75a, 75b
Surman, John   1971
Sweden   19.. 64, 71
Sweet Basil   1976
Switzerland   1971
SWR [Südwestrundfunk]   1973
Szabo, Gabor   1958

Tatum, Art   19.. 49, 53
Taylor, Billy   1953
tears of sound   1962
Temiz, Okay   1973
temple   1967
Terry, Clark   1963
The Trio   1971
Thiele, Bob   19.. 63a, 63b, 65, 76, 77
Thiruvarankulum [India]   1973
Thompson, Barbara   1973
Tokyo   19.. 61, 64, 76
Toshiko Mariano Quartet   19.. 60, 61
Total Music   1975
Towner, Ralph   1966
Tracey, Stan   1966
Transitory [Pork Pie]   1975
Tropico → El Tropico
Trunk, Peter   1973
Truitt, Sonny   19.. 47, 53a, 53b
TV   19.. 64, 73
Twardzik, Dick   19.. 46, 48, 53
Tyner, McCoy   19.. 62, 63, 73

United Jazz + Rock Ensemble   19.. 76, 77
UK   1966

Vaccaro, Frank   1947
van Gelder, Rudy   1965
van Kriedt, Dave   1953
van Rooyen, Ack   19.. 75, 76
van't Hof, Jasper   19.. 71, 73a, 73b, 73c, 75a, 75b, 76
Vesala, Edward   19.. 70, 73
Vinnegar, Leroy   19.. 55, 56
Viola, Joe   1945

Waller, Fats   19.. 45, 49, 53
Warren, Peter   1971
Watanabe, Sadao   19.. 64, 67, 68
Weber, Eberhard   19.. 75, 75, 76a, 76b
Wein, George   19.. 42, 48, 64
Weiss, Peter   1971
Wildi, Gus (founder of Bethlehem Records)   1956
Williams, Richard   19.. 62, 63
Williamson, Stu   19.. 53, 55
Winding, Kasper   1973
Winstone, Norma   1973
Woode, Jimmy   1953
work permit   1975
workshop band   1964
World War I   1919
World War II   19.. 42a, 42b, 67
Wyands, Richard   1953

Yatra   1976
Young, Lester   19.. 38, 41, 45

Zawinul, Joe   1958
Zurich [Switzerland]   19.. 71a, 71b
— Schauspielhaus   1971

Song Index (© composed by Charlie Mariano)

Barsac ©   1953
Bess, You Is My Woman Now (George Gershwin)   1953
Blu Gnu ©   1956
Blue In Green (Miles Davis)   1974
Blue Skies   1942
Body And Soul (Johnny Green)   1942
Brother Muthaiah ©   1974

Confessin'   1942

Dart Game, The → The Dart Game

Gambit, The → The Gambit

I've Got Rhythm (George Gershwin)   1942

Lady Be Good (George Gershwin)   1942

Naima (John Coltrane)   1974

Pat   1949

Salt Peanuts   1945
Seersucker Blues   1949
Slan ©   1956
Stardust   1942
Sweet Georgia Brown   1942
Sweet Lorraine   1942
Sweet Sue   1942

Talk Of The Town   1942
The Dart Game ©   1956
The Gambit ©   1956
Thiruvarankulum ©   1974

What's New   1947

© hepcat1950 TOP last update: April 14, 2010